Gerald Caron wears multiple hats – he is the Chief Information Officer & Assistant Inspector General for Information Technology U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General, while also chairing multiple working groups concurrently. OpenGov had the pleasure of speaking with him on the advantages of Zero Trust Architecture, considerations and strategies when integrating Zero Trust Architecture in organisations.
With 1900 users in the agency, Gerald oversees the biggest force in the federal government doing general IT support infrastructure, applications and modernisation. Many of his clients do a lot of the data analytics and reporting, some of which goes to the federal government and the US public.
Gerald’s function allows him to access a “cross-pollination of data” and take a closer look at human behaviour. With copious experience working with data and information of people from different sources and agencies, Opengov Asia is keen to know what are the learnings looking at such a diverse group of people who are trying to achieve different outcomes using different technology. And with so much data and information at stake, Gerald’s reflections on Zero Trust Architecture and advice for others who are also attempting to implement changes is vital.
Understanding the use case for Zero Trust
Drawing from his 20 years of experience at the Department of State, supporting 109,000 users doing enterprise, one insight Gerald has gained is that “users are a weak point for any organisation”. When thinking about malicious activities, it is the insiders who create the biggest impact, he claims, citing Robert Handson and Edward Snowden. However, the intent of the insider may not always be malicious. In some instances, people are merely trying to complete their tasks. When they encounter restrictive security, their solution is to find all other ways to get the job done.
Although the users might not be mala fide, someone who does not have good intentions could exploit the processes that insiders undertook to complete their task. It is in light of such loopholes that Gerald believes in the importance of Zero Trust Architecture.
The key principle of Zero Trust is to ensure that people are who they claim to be in the digital space so that they can get the data that they need. It is a cybersecurity paradigm that moves defences from static, network-based perimeters to focus on users and resources. Zero Trust is indiscriminate in that it does not care if someone is an insider or an outsider. “I am going to check you at the door and I am going to keep checking you constantly while you’re inside my door,” Gerald explains.
Zero Trust is a necessity because it is simply insufficient to rely on people to flag issues. For Gerald, it is not possible to track data in real-time, understand where it is flowing all, determine who it is going to, or who is active. Automation is required because of heavy data traffic and the rate at which data is created. Machine learning and AI can help to identify what normal looks like, such that when the abnormal happens, the process of rectifying an issue is streamlined.
Historically, when an anomaly occurs, the cyber security team alerts someone to look into the oddity and deploys an analyst to look into it. It is then followed by a lot of lateral movement and persistence until the cause of the issue is figured out. That process is no longer sustainable or effective given the amount of data that is created every day. In that regard, automation is the key.
Work culture and risk tolerance in a changing world
In the US, there is the NIST SP 800-207 publication, which is Zero Trust Architecture listed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. It is available to the public and explains Zero Trust. The policy engine directs the course of action in any given situation based on a set of principles. Coming up with the methodology that informs the policy engine is where organisations need to find alignment, Gerald opines.
Gerald believes that the difficulty of building architecture and coordinating integration effort is not as much about the technology as it is about understanding “people, processes, aspects of governance and risk tolerance”.
Before COVID-19, many of the practices that are now normal would have been unthinkable – mobile administration, working from home and accessing government information on personal devices. The pandemic engendered a reassessment of people’s new risk tolerances when people discovered safe and secure ways to allow people to work from home. It has proven is that the risk that people thought existed was not as extensive as they imagined. With the paradigm shift and the new measures, employees can keep organisational missions going.
Without a doubt, moving data to the cloud poses a different risk – it increases the attack surface. With people working remotely and accessing the cloud, the traditional perimeter of defence is gone. The key focus is to move the protection closer to the data now that organisations no longer have this big outer shell.
There are multiple levels of consideration when it comes to cybersecurity in the current landscape. While many people might think of devices as the fundamental facilitator of data access, Gerald first considers protection around applications before devices. The next level of consideration is the network, followed by the user.
Every level possesses different risks within them, Gerald asserts. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) has a different level of risk than a fully managed laptop; a cleared government employee has a different level of risk than a public user. For Gerald, all the factors add to an overall risk level – a dynamic risk score that changes along with the circumstances. For example, the risk factor can change the moment the same user accesses data through the cloud, tipping the conditional access policy.
The playbook for navigating organisational shifts
Bringing change in the architecture such as Zero Trust would invite resistance. For a user who needs to transition to Zero Trust, it might feel like an introduction of cumbersome barriers daily that the user has to learn and overcome. “Is there a way to mitigate against this resistance and frustration?” OpenGov Asia asks.
The way to manage “the politics” of change, according to Gerald, is to refer to a playbook. One must have a strategy and a plan. When introducing Zero Trust, one needs to consider the different roles within the ecosystem. Using the analogy of a soccer game, Gerald explains the various organisational functions:
- Players in the field: People who do the work and implementation
- Coaching staff: Project managers and programme managers
- Trainers: People who ensure that those in the field have the tools that they need to function
- The Executive Suite: The CEO, CIO, and the people who hold resources and direct priorities for the organisation
- The fans who cheer the team: The end-user population.
The analogy of soccer is apt because it humanises the process and experience of getting people on board. “Everybody is important – you can’t do one without the other” because responsibility exists at every level.
In the grand scheme of change, educating the end-user is critical. “The fans would need to understand why the team is making moves on the field, the rationale for the strategies undertaken,” Gerald believes. When the fans understand the principles, it translates into revenue in the private sector.
The end-user population need to understand why they are part of the team and journey. The implementers must also place the end-user at the centre and lubricate the process: to understand what end users like, what works and what does not. People working on bringing changes in the infrastructure have to understand how different personas like to work – how people like to work with the data they’re accessing and where people locate data.
The key to change is to ensure that it is not restrictive or prescriptive. Users must bring their use cases and the IT department must work at where users are at. Gerald shares a past example where US embassies all over the world were backhauling onto on-premises locations or data centres to access the internet. Now there are edge computing capabilities and services that can allow users to be directed to where they want to be. This solution achieves telemetry in management and policy management from a security perspective but achieves performance advantage by sending users directly to the internet.
Convincing end-users of the advantages of the architecture is key. One such benefit is going passwordless. In the process of bringing more applications and introducing Zero Trust Architecture, going password-less makes it easier for the actual end-user. BYOD is another advantage for end-users.
Instead of having what Gerald calls, network ‘anchors’ to offices and space, Zero Trust helps with mobile teams since the defence perimeter is around the data and not locations or networks. It frees people up from the need to be in a particular building or be protected from within walls.
Working with partners and conducting “inventory checks”
Gerald emphasises the need to work with vendors and collaborators. “We need to partner with them to be successful. They have the solutions,” he says. Yet knowing how to collaborate with vendors and coordinating the effort takes work.
First of all, it is important to get everyone in the organisation on the same page when defining Zero Trust and coming up with a standard criterion that the vendors can work with. Outlines and criteria also help to focus discussions on the organisation’s unique use cases. Otherwise, organisations will be clueless when interacting with vendors and reviewing solutions. For Gerald, it is important to conduct a self-inventory so that organisations can control the conversation when talking to vendors.
Organisations need to get clarity on their real risk tolerance. To do so, they need awareness of where their data sits, how data is classified, where data is going and the policies that need to change. Governance also needs to be put in place to structure the sharing of data and the bringing of a new system into this network. The process involves managing people, processes, procedures, understanding the organisation’s methodology.
Apart from that, it is also important to understand where people’s thresholds lie. While it is easy to be distracted by technology, the hard work is in the people, process, procedures, risk methodology, risk tolerance and politics. In some sense, nailing down the technology is sometimes easier than the non-technical aspect of the work.
When it comes to implementing changes, Gerald cautions against ticking boxes and being compliant. Organisations need to look deep into their processes to truly understand where the gaps and loopholes are. It might be easy to get carried away with everything that is bolted on, creating a false illusion that the data is well protected when the foundations are extremely weak.
“Nobody wants to go to the basement. Everybody likes going to top floors.” This creates many problems in the process. However, that is where people need to take a long, hard look.
Ultimately, Gerald asserts that introducing Zero Trust architecture is one that functions in hybrid mode. Most organisations do not have the luxury of creating an entirely new “greenfield.” More often than not, organisations will have to build infrastructures on top of what they already have. It is in that context that organisations need to not only get themselves up to speed with technology – doing inventory checks and understanding the organisation’s maturity – but also understand people, processes, methodology and risk appetites. After all, it is people who will be wielding technology.
The Infocomm Media Development Authority (IMDA) announced the launch of a S$5 million Virtual Production Innovation Fund to support the local media industry in developing the capabilities needed to harness virtual production technology to maintain the local media industry’s competitiveness as the international partner of choice to create premium IP.
To enable the camera to capture actors and visual effects in real time, virtual production technology uses LED panels to produce realistic background landscapes for television or movie sequences driven by video game engines. The site, road closures, location costs, permits, weather, set construction, and space rental will no longer be necessary for production.
With the help of technology, Singapore has a rare chance to get over some of its physical constraints, like the lack of suitable locations for on-location filming and room for large sets.
The ability of the storytellers to reproduce historical sites or any other environment will allow them to generate content that was previously impossible. This will revolutionise the creative process of storytelling.
The adoption of virtual production by the media sector is further encouraged by the strong signals emanating from international media giants that this technology will be widely employed in the creation of movies and television shows and will become the standard in the next years.
To strengthen capabilities in virtual production and ensure that the media companies and talent can keep up with international production methods to remain competitive, IMDA will pursue a two-pronged strategy to prepare the media sector for the future.
The National Film and Television School (NFTS) in the UK has collaborated with IMDA to adapt the school’s Certificate in Virtual Production course to the requirements of the sector to train media professionals to use this technology.
From December 2022 to April 2023, fifteen professors, trainers, and media professionals from Singapore will participate in virtual lectures and undergo hands-on training at NFTS’s virtual production facilities.
Over the course of the following 12 months, several masterclasses and workshops given by professionals from the business will be offered. A Singapore-based firm that specialises in developing immersive experiences, held a display to exhibit how virtual production can enhance imaginative storytelling.
Hands-on demonstrations will be given by guest speakers from virtual production leaders. They will discuss and explore best practices in the workflow to inventive ways to use different technology in storytelling.
Local businesses can also test out virtual production to realise their creative ideas for brief pieces of content, such as music videos, short films, and brand advertisements, among others. Companies can submit their suggested content concepts from now until February 15, 2023.
The capacity to best utilise virtual production technologies to realise a project’s creative vision will be taken into consideration while evaluating proposals.
Additionally, IMDA is working to organise an industry challenge with an internationally renowned gaming company. This challenge will encourage organisations to experiment with and use the cutting-edge real-time 3D creation tool developed by this gaming company. Currently, the aforementioned tool powers globally popular video games.
Teams whose concepts are shortlisted will receive personalised coaching and training from the gaming company. In addition, they will receive prize money from IMDA to assist with content creation.
Since virtual production technology has advanced in recent years, the country is now able to produce visual effects in real-time without building actual sets, thereby overcoming the constraints of scale, complexity, and space.
The Singapore Tourism Board (STB) and Singapore Association of Convention & Exhibition Organisers & Suppliers (SACEOS) released the MICE Sustainability Roadmap, which outlines specific goals and plans for raising sustainability standards throughout the MICE sector in Singapore over the coming years.
The Meetings, Incentives, Conventions, and Exhibitions (MICE) industry is a type of tourism travel in which groups of people are brought together for a specific reason, usually well in advance. On the other hand, the MICE market refers to a subset of people who plan, arrange, and facilitate conferences, seminars, exhibitions, and other events.
Part of STB’s overarching plan to develop a sustainable tourism sector is the use of such roadmaps, which direct businesses in the sector to achieve specific sustainability goals. Following the launch of the Hotel Sustainability Roadmap earlier this year, the MICE Sustainability Roadmap is the second such project.
The Singapore Green Plan 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations (UN) serve as the roadmap’s guiding principles. Three goals are listed in the MICE Sustainability Roadmap to help Singapore become one of the most environmentally-friendly MICE destinations in Asia Pacific:
- By 2023, create a set of industry-acceptable sustainability standards with the goal of having them recognised internationally by 2024.
- For all six purpose-built MICE venues and 80% of SACEOS members to get internationally or nationally recognised sustainability certification, or both, by 2025.
- To attain net-zero emissions by 2050 in accordance with the country’s net-zero aim, the Singapore MICE sector must first track waste and carbon emissions by 2023, reduce waste in line with the Singapore Green Plan by 2030, and reduce waste overall by 2050.
The MICE Sustainability Committee (MSComm), established by STB and SACEOS in August 2022 to advance sustainability capabilities and create awareness of sustainability initiatives and best practices, will help the industry adopt sustainable practices and meet these goals.
The dedication to sustainability follows a robust MICE rebound in the wake of Singapore’s borders being reopened in April this year and a rising desire for environmentally friendly business travel. More importantly, the industry is aware of how crucial it is to lessen the environmental impact of MICE events.
With STB and SACEOS leading the charge and offering support as necessary to further develop a sustainable business events landscape in Singapore, the MICE Sustainability Roadmap will ensure that MICE players move forward in pursuing relevant and achievable sustainability goals that are tracked at appropriate milestones.
Meanwhile, OpenGov Asia recently reported that the Infocomm Media Development Authority (IMDA) of Singapore is working with a large American technology company to address climate change-related challenges and enhance the sustainability of digital technologies.
The cooperation aims to hasten the local and international development of software applications and solutions to assist businesses in using their resources more efficiently.
The tech giant and IMDA will exchange best practices, standards, learnings, and certification pathways for accurate measurement and reporting of carbon emissions resulting from software applications. Through this relationship, the nation hopes to speed up the application of the ideas and resources needed to create green technologies.
According to IMDA, Southeast Asia is well-positioned for the region to take the lead in digital sustainability. This collaboration will produce cutting-edge digital sustainability solutions that can be used by multinational corporations, bringing about positive change for the environment worldwide and ensuring a sustainable future for all.
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and a US-based engineering company signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish the Centre for Humanistic Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (CHAiR) for translational research with the goal of advancing the well-being of humanity.
The partnership aims to integrate the university’s interdisciplinary research capabilities and the company’s well-known humanoid robotics platform to explore technology applications. Sophia, the company’s most advanced human-like robot, will work with PolyU researchers to enhance the contribution of AI and robotic technology for social and commercial benefits.
Research into and applications of AI and robotics are essential to the advancement of industry. As an interdisciplinary research and development centre, CHAiR brings cross-faculty collaborations in research fields such as AI, the internet of things (IoT), neuroscience, design, computer science, mechanical engineering, material science, healthcare, and the humanities.
In collaboration with the company, CHAiR supports innovation and entrepreneurship in Hong Kong and the Greater Bay Area. The Dean of Graduate School, Chair Professor of Distributed and Mobile Computing, and Otto Poon Charitable Foundation Professor in Data Science will serve as the principal investigator and administrative director of CHAiR. He will also serve alongside the CEO and Founder of the company as a co-chair of the Centre’s steering committee.
The MoU was signed by the Vice President (Research and Innovation) of PolyU and the CEO and Founder of the company. It was Witnessed by the President of PolyU and the Executive Director of the firm.
During the signing ceremony, Sophia made conversation with the guests. She said, “I look forward to learning many new skills and abilities. With your help, maybe I can learn how to be a nurse, a teacher, a concierge, a librarian. You can teach me how to be a better companion, a more skilful artist, a funnier entertainer.”
Meanwhile, the company’s CEO and Founder noted that the new centre is perfectly positioned to refine and improve the performance of Sophia-class robots in ways that promote the growth of a new service robot industry. As soon as the industry begins expanding, investment in improved hardware, software and manufacturing technologies will as well, he noted.
The President of PolyU noted that academia-industry collaboration is one of the most productive mechanisms for creating and implementing innovations. There is tremendous untapped potential for humanistic social robots. Let us aspire that CHAiR will be a major catalyst for the onset of the age of humanistic robots.
The Dean of Graduate School, Chair Professor of Distributed and Mobile Computing, who is also Director of the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence of Things (RIAIoT), said the Institute has been working on practical solutions to key challenges in advanced AIoT technologies and applications.
He noted that the natural evolution for RIAIoT is to partner with the engineering firm to address increasingly ambitious opportunities in humanistic AI and social robotics. CHAiR will play a unique and key role to combine the firm’s knowledge with world-class academics here at PolyU.
The engineering company is an AI and robotics company dedicated to creating socially intelligent machines that enrich the quality of our lives. Sophia is the world’s first robot citizen and the first robot Innovation Ambassador for the United Nations Development Programme.
India aims to become a hub for drone technology for which it will require at least 100,000 drone pilots by next year, according to the Minister of Information and Broadcasting, Anurag Singh Thakur.
Thakur highlighted several ways drone technology is being applied in India, including the SWAMITVA (Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas) Scheme, which uses drones to survey land and houses. The scheme provides citizens in far-flung areas the right to document their residential properties so that they can use their property for economic purposes. Drones are also being used in the agricultural sector to sprinkle pesticides and nano fertilizers under the Kisan Drone Yatra project. 100 Kisan drones have been sent to villages across the country to spray pesticides. The drone technology could add US$ 3 billion to the agriculture sector in 2023, benefitting 100 million farmers, Thakur explained.
During the pandemic, the city of Varanasi used drones to spray sanitiser around COVID-19-sensitive parts under the Smart Cities Mission (SCM). The drones were specially airlifted from Chennai through cargo flights with permission from the Ministry of Civil Aviation (MoCA). The drone team would first visit the area planned to be sanitised for the day, make a quick visual survey of the terrain, buildings, and surroundings, and then chalk out a flight path to be followed by the drone.
The drone was filled with a chemical solution (consisting of 1% sodium hypochlorite), calibrated, and then set to fly. The drones were flown using a remote-control device by experienced drone pilots in the planned flight path.
Similarly, last year, MoCA allowed the state government of Telangana to conduct experimental beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) drone flights to deliver COVID-19 vaccines. Authorities had exempted the state from Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) rules. This was part of India’s constant endeavour to enhance the scope of drone usage in the country and assist the nation to fight the COVID-19 pandemic, as OpenGov Asia reported. The BVLOS trials helped create the regulatory framework for drone deliveries and other major applications.
In 2021, MoCA and the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) granted a conditional exemption to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) to deploy drones to live stream the India Cricket Season.
In March this year, the National Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (NMDC), the country’s biggest iron ore public sector enterprise, signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Indian Institute of Technology in Kharagpur (IIT-Kharagpur) for drone-based mineral excavation. The two organisations have developed software, products, methods, and algorithms for mineral exploration using drones (unmanned aerial vehicles) as well as capacity-building training programmes on mining technology.
In May, Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated India’s biggest drone festival – the Bharat Drone Mahotsav 2022, where he interacted with Kisan drone pilots. There are currently over 200 drone start-ups operating in the country. The figure will increase over the next few years, generating thousands of new job opportunities for the youth. The government has said that employment opportunities worth IN 60 billion (US$ 727 million) a year could be created in the drone sector.
Thakur noted that drone technology has come to play an important role in defence, agriculture, health, and entertainment. The government strives to further boost the demand for cutting-edge drone technology and services through a three-pronged approach:
- Implementing effective policies, for example, the Drone Rules, 2021
- Providing incentives through PLI for drones and drone components
- Creating indigenous demand, which will be overseen by 12 central ministries
For inbound travellers’ arrival details and health declaration checklist, eTravel is a new contact tracking platform that replaces the One Health Pass and e-Arrival card in the Philippines. E-travel can now be accessed at the official website.
The new system is easy to use as travellers coming in can sign up with their personal profiles, travel information, and health declarations. When finishing this step, the user will get a QR code that is unique to them. This service is free, but people need to sign up at least 3 days before they arrive in the Philippines.
E-travel is developed by the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) and is a joint initiative with the Bureau of Immigration (BI), Bureau of Quarantine (BOQ), Bureau of Customs (BOC), Department of Tourism (DOT), Department of Health (DOH), Department of Justice (DOJ), and the Department of Transportation (DOTr).
The interconnection, data-sharing, and synergy of all the many departments that are divided into several silos will now be combined into a single system that will be looking at a single point in time, according to DICT Secretary Ivan John Uy. Hence, it will make it easier for the people to interact with the government at the same time.
Meanwhile, to promote a unified government approach to E-Governance, the DICT’s Office of the Undersecretary for E-Government (OUEG) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with partner government entities.
The Landbank of the Philippines, the Department of the Interior and Local Government, the Department of Trade and Industry, the Government Service Insurance System, the Social Security System, and the Mindanao Development Authority are all partners in this endeavour.
Through its efforts to digitally change government processes and government agencies, the DICT hopes to improve data standards and data governance, allowing for data harmonisation and coordination throughout the government.
The effort includes the creation, deployment, and integration of systems for Department flagship programmes such E-Local Government Units (ELGU), E-Government Applications (EGovApp), E-Govpay, E-Travel, and E-Cloud.
The MoU establishes the partner agencies as key players in the pursuit of digital transformation and e-governance. Since DICT considers harmony to be the foundation of clarity. Therefore, the goals of these initiatives are twofold: to construct a government that is enabled by ICT and to capacitate its development.
Furthermore, through the Career Certificates Scholarship Programme, a multinational technology business will provide free professional training to Filipinos. This programme is presently being provided by the DICT through the ICT Literacy and Competency Development Bureau (ILCDB).
With the help of this career certificates programme, appropriate skill development and tooling are now easier to obtain. By closing the digital divide and widening chances for Filipinos, the DICT seeks to expand ICT opportunities.
The agency urges Filipinos to apply for the scholarship and benefit from the free professional training created by one of the biggest software companies in the world.
The course can award credentials in IT support, project management, user experience (UX) design, and data analytics. Through this programme, Filipinos can gain new skills and connect with top employers while preparing for a new career in the rapidly expanding ICT industry.
The process is also practical for online education. Participants must be at least 18 years old, residents of and citizens of the Philippines, and capable of finishing the online course using their own device or gadget to be eligible to apply for the scholarship.
Australia’s national science agency, CSIRO, helped launch construction of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Observatory’s SKA-Low telescope at Inyarrimanha Ilgari Bundara, the CSIRO Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory on Wajarri Country in Western Australia (WA).
The global SKA Observatory (SKAO) announced the start of on-site construction activity for both their telescopes, SKA-Low in Australia and SKA-Mid in South Africa. The SKA-Low telescope will be the first mega-science project co-hosted in Australia and will explore the Universe in more detail than ever before, transforming the current understanding of the cosmos and benefitting society through global collaboration and innovation.
The SKA project aims to help Australian expertise remain at the forefront of discovery as an example collaboration to drive innovation, especially the collaboration of the Wajarri Yamaji, Traditional Owners and native title holders of the telescope site.
The progress of the SKA project over the past two decades has allowed researchers to see further into the universe than ever before. It has driven innovation and inspired generations both new and old through the development of technologies to solve great challenges facing our planet by better understanding the universe.
The start of SKA-Low construction on site is the culmination of many dreams, both within CSIRO and the global astronomy community, and the next step on this journey of discovery. CSIRO is the SKAO’s operations partner for the SKA-Low telescope in Australia and holds multiple contracts for SKA-Low construction activities.
The SKA-Low telescope will spread across 74 km end-to-end at the WA observatory site alongside existing instruments including CSIRO’s ASKAP radio telescope.
The SKA-Low Telescope Director stated that the SKAO was pleased to have established operations and engineering centres in Australia, where SKAO works closely with CSIRO as operations partner. She noted that CSIRO has been involved in the SKA project since its inception and have been leaders in radio astronomy science and technology for more than 70 years. The SKA Observatory welcomes this partnership with CSIRO to build and operate the SKA-Low telescope in Western Australia, she added.
CSIRO is also a foundation member in other key SKA project partners in Australia, including the Pawsey Supercomputing Research Centre and the Australian SKA Regional Centre.
More about CSIRO’s role in the SKA project
Australia is a member of the international organisation established to build and operate the world’s most powerful radio astronomy facility, the SKA Observatory (SKAO). The SKA Observatory will consist of two radio-telescopes, one in Australia (SKA-Low), and one in South Africa (SKA-Mid). The two telescopes will observe the sky at different radio frequencies and complement each other scientifically.
CSIRO will be the operating partner for the SKA-Low telescope, as well as hosting the telescope itself at Inyarrimanha Ilgari Bundara, our Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia.
SKA-Low will consist of an array of 131,072 Christmas tree-shaped antennas, grouped in 512 stations, each with 256 antennas. Several of these antenna stations will be placed in the centre and the rest will span out along three spiral arms, stretching 74 kilometres end to end. SKA-Low will operate at frequencies between 50 and 350 MHz, like FM radio and TV broadcasts.
In addition to its role as operations partner and managers of the telescope site, CSIRO will also contribute to the construction of the SKA-Low Telescope. CSIRO:
- Led the infrastructure design work and is collaborating with industry partners to manage the site infrastructure construction process. This includes its work with industry partner Aurecon to manage the infrastructure contracts in Australia, including the contract with an Australian-based business.
- Is working with university and industry partners to oversee the installation of SKA-Low antenna stations.
- Is managing the assembly, integration, and verification process – the work to connect and check all the individual sub systems and products are working correctly – together with international institutions.
- Is working with international research institutions to develop the central signal processing system of the telescope, the backend of the telescope that takes the signals from each antenna station and combines them before sending that information to the science data processing system.
- Is working with university partners to design the science data processing system, the supercomputer software that takes the data from the telescope and outputs the images astronomers use to study the universe.
With only three taps on their smartphone, computer, or tablet, caregivers of injured service members can access more than 2,000 materials from the U.S. Defense Health Agency (DHA).
A caregiver for her husband who was in the U.S. Army, Jamela Davis said, “It offers you the flexibility so whenever you need to locate that information, whatever you’re searching for, it’s right there at your fingertips.”
The eCRD is perfect for the more than 300,000 caregivers of wounded soldiers and veterans, Jamela continued. “Although using a phone for navigation is so simple, some people find it a little scary. It is therefore a useful tool to have.”
DHA stated that users can quickly locate the category they’re looking for by looking at the table of contents when they first access the eCRD, they can view the list of available materials from there.
An electronic platform called eCRD is based on the National Resource Directory (NRD). For military personnel, veterans, family members, and caregivers, the NRD is a database of verified services that aid in recovery, rehabilitation, and reintegration. The Departments of Labor, Veterans Affairs, and Defense are all involved in the effort.
One of its user-friendly aspects, according to Jonathan Morris with DHA’s Warrior Care Recovery Care Programmes Operations, is that when they update the NRD with new resources, they can be added to the eCRD right away with just a check box.
Other advances in the eCRD include straightforward navigation and link-based search, little scrolling, printing of single pages of text, and hyperlinks to each resource.
More than 300,000 free copies of the Caregiver Resource Directory have been given since it was first published in hard copy in 2015 and is updated yearly.
There are a variety of supports and resources available to caregivers and their families if they need to relocate so that the transition can be as seamless as possible.
By location, there are direct links to each of the military service relocation programmes, as stated by Morris.
He noted that the NRD and the eCRD connect moving caregivers and their families to programmes and agencies that assist them to settle in and provide virtual support through groups like the American Red Cross Military and Veterans Caregiver Network.
Caring for someone can be a fulltime commitment, so caregivers need to take care of themselves so they can keep doing their jobs and not get burned out.
Jamela added that she’s always looking for ways to rest and relax. This helps keep her mental health and well-being as a caregiver in good shape.
She has also used the Veteran Spouse Network and gone on caregiver retreats at an equestrian therapy ranch that has programmes for wounded warriors and their families. These programmes give her more “tools” for taking care of herself.
Also, emergencies can happen, and sometimes caregivers need help right away. Challenges for other caregivers could include anything from mental health to employment to education. Hence, caregivers need so much, and they just don’t know what kind of situation they will be in.
Users can also email the NRD and the content team will help them find resources even if those resources are in local communities churches.
Access to health care for caregivers, guides to community resources, caregiver resources for family members with traumatic brain injury, VA speciality resources for caregivers, and mental health support services for children of caregivers are the top five resources searched for this year on the eCRD and NRD.