Data lies at the heart of much of the digital transformation happening in the world today. However, the growing volumes of data and the shift to cloud environments, coupled with increasingly stringent regulatory expectations, present an imposing challenge for many organisations today.
OpenGov spoke to Mr. Michael Bishop, Legal Director, Asia Pacific, Commvault, regarding this rapidly changing landscape and its implications for data management. Commvault is a global leader in enterprise backup, recovery, archive and cloud data management solutions.
Growth in data volumes and the shift to cloud
People used to know where their data is. They used to know where their back-ups were. But two developments have led to a paradigm shift.
The first is the exponential growth in data volumes. The second is the shift to cloud. Earlier organisations used to store their data in a single data centre. Now there are commercial cloud, hybrid cloud environments. There are many compelling reasons to move to the cloud, such as scalability according to changing demand and on-demand availability of storage and computing resources. This poses a real challenge for companies as try to manage their data. Now many organisations don’t really understand their data footprint.
New laws and regulations
The new laws and regulations coming in further add to the complexity. For instance, data sovereignty requirements might need the organisation to know where their cloud provider is storing their data. A Singaporean company, dealing with data of Singaporean citizens, might choose a cloud provider based in Singapore. But they might be backing up their data in Malaysia.
Many organisations place a lot of faith in their cloud provider for securing and recovering their data. But Mr. Bishop urged caution, “You can move your data to the cloud, but you cannot move your compliance obligations. Those stay with the organisations. I think in the rush to the cloud and the rush to take advantage of all those features, people have sometimes lost track of their data footprint. This becomes vital during attacks, breaches and outages, when people need to turn around and ask, well where is my data back-up?”
Probably the most important example of new regulation at the moment, is the General Data Protection Act (GDPR; Final version of the Regulation, released 6 April 2016) in the European Union (EU). Mr. Bishop called it the most meaningful piece of privacy legislation in a very long time.
The GDPR was approved and adopted by the EU Parliament in April 2016. The regulation will take effect after a two-year transition period and, unlike a Directive it does not require any enabling legislation to be passed by government; meaning it will be in force May 2018.
Mr. Bishop said, “I like the fact that is a regulation rather than a directive. With a directive, it gets implemented in member states differently. They are kind of free to interpret it however they want. But this harmonises the regulation across all the member states.”
The GDPR was created in a culture, where privacy appears to be more highly valued, as compared to other jurisdictions. The GDPR will hand back power to the individual or the data subject. Individual data subjects would be able to bring class actions directly against the organisations. Earlier only the data controller could be prosecuted, because the processor was considered to be just doing the controller’s bidding. But under the GDPR both parties can be pursued. The cloud providers and data processors, now they are just as liable as the controllers.
Mr. Bishop also believes that the data portability rights in the GDPR and the data breach notification rules are big positive steps.
But these presents a huge challenge for organisations dealing with data. For instance, GDPR sets a time limit of 72 hours (Australia introduced similar notification requirements recently, but with a requirement to notify as soon as practicable) for informing the supervisory authorities about any unauthorised loss, access or disclosure of information, resulting in physical, material or non-material damage to natural persons.
Another example is the ‘Right to erasure’ ('right to be forgotten') in Article 17 of the GDPR states that the data subject has the right to obtain from the controller the erasure of personal data concerning him or her, if the personal data are no longer necessary in relation to the purposes for which they were collected or otherwise processed; or the data subject withdraws consent.
This can be highly problematic from a data management point of view. The organisation has to delete all copies of that individual’s data, wherever it has been reproduced or duplicated. To do that you have to know where your data is in the first place.
72 hours presents a very small window. Hence, a very proactive approach is required. Companies need to be prepared to communicate the effects and have remedial measures in place. No one is immune to these cyberattacks and data breaches. And everyone is going to be targeted at some point.
On top of the difficult obligations of trans-national laws, businesses have to deal with different national regulations. It can get overwhelming for IT managers and CIOs.
In fact, Mr. Bishop said that many organisations in Asia did not realise initially that they were going to be affected by the GDPR. “If you are serving customers in the EU, you are caught by the GDPR. If you have an office in the EU, it’s applicable to you. Even if you are monitoring the behaviour of European citizens, or if you have a website with European customers, you will still be under the jurisdiction of the GDPR,” he said.
Previously data privacy was not a subject which interested many people. Many organisations thought they would pay the fine if it came to that. The fines proposed under GDPR are much bigger (can go up to the higher of 20 million Euros or 4% of the annual worldwide turnover).
The bigger fines are focusing people’s attention on privacy issues. But that is not the only factor. People are realising that privacy breaches affect customer trust.
It gets even worse if customers find out that an organisation suffered a cyberattack and didn’t disclose it, especially when their personal information if affected.
Commenting on the recently proposed cybersecurity bill in Singapore, Mr. Bishop said, “One of the things I really like is the mandatory reporting. That’s really important.Companies are required by law to disclose any data breaches to protect from vulnerabilities.”
Companies express worries about undermining the confidence in the consumer economy. “That’s the wrong way to look at it. What we should be focusing on is how can we restore confidence by putting the right encryption in place, by putting right security measures in place, managing communications and having plans for remedial actions,” said Mr. Bishop.
At the end of the day, it comes down to what Mr. Bishop called ‘data intimacy’. He described it as having a complete understanding of where your data and environment is, and how the data lifecyc
le varies according to these factors. Organisations need to have that understanding before they can even start to unravel their compliance obligations.
HKUST and ASTRI announced that they will be partnering to establish an initial Joint PhD programme through the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The MoU was signed by HKUST’s Provost and ASTRI’s Chief Executive Officer at HKUST’s campus in the presence of HKUST’s President and ASTRI’s Board of Directors Chairman.
As per the MoU, HKUST and ASTRI will jointly screen and select eligible candidates who will work as full-time R&D staff at ASTRI while pursuing a part-time PhD degree at HKUST. The selected candidates will have the chance to participate in leading-edge research projects that encompass artificial intelligence, big data, wireless communications, smart city, and advanced materials. Additionally, they will also be involved in R&D projects related to their PhD studies. Experienced R&D staff members from ASTRI may be appointed as HKUST’s adjunct professors and serve as co-supervisors for the PhD students.
With the backing of the nation, the Hong Kong government emphasised the significance of advancing innovation and technology (I&T) in the “2022 Policy Address.” The “I&T Development Blueprint” created by the government in December outlines a comprehensive plan for Hong Kong’s I&T growth in the next 5 to 10 years, including strategies such as improving the I&T environment and expanding the pool of I&T talent.
The Joint PhD programme aims to contribute to these efforts by fostering talent who can turn their research into commercial success while gaining the necessary knowledge and credentials to prepare for their careers.
The Chairman of the ASTRI Board of Directors stated that as Hong Kong’s top R&D organisation, ASTRI is dedicated to supporting the government’s initiatives outlined in the “I&T Development Blueprint” and “Competing for Talents” plans.
The first launch of the Joint PhD Programme with HKUST is anticipated to draw and retain talented individuals in I&T who want to pursue PhD studies or research in Hong Kong, thereby providing a strong pool of I&T talent to help make Hong Kong a smart city and a global hub for I&T.
The President of HKUST stated that the University is committed to its mission of promoting knowledge through education and research. With its strong foundation in basic research and partnerships with various industrial partners, including ASTRI, HKUST is well-positioned to bridge the gap between fundamental and applied research.
This will not only enhance Hong Kong’s innovation and technology ecosystem, cultivate top-notch talent for Hong Kong, the nation, and beyond, but also enable the commercialisation of HKUST’s research results for the benefit of society.
The Chief Executive Officer of ASTRI stated that bringing research and development results to fruition is a central objective of ASTRI. To maintain close ties with the academic community, the Memorandum of Understanding with HKUST was signed to foster joint R&D and technology commercialisation in February 2022, followed by this Joint PhD Programme a year later. The programme is expected to will effectively sharpen students’ creativity, critical thinking, and global perspective, enhancing their competitiveness on a global scale and hastening the implementation of HKUST’s R&D breakthroughs.
HKUST’s Provost expressed excitement about the joint PhD programme with ASTRI, stating that it is crucial to talent development for Hong Kong’s growth into an international innovation and technology hub.
The programme will use the strengths of both organisations to provide specialists with opportunities to acquire skills and qualifications while conducting R&D projects. The programme is expected to enhance Hong Kong’s talent development and expand its talent pool.
The University of South Australia and the South Australian Institute of Sport (SASI) have joined forces to establish a top-notch sports research and education facility in Mile End, focusing on high-performance sports.
The new cutting-edge complex integrates essential sports and educational resources to aid athletes in reaching peak performance, offer university students hands-on, industry-focused learning, and provide research-based solutions for sports in South Australia. The new SASI will share a location with the National Centre for Sports Aerodynamics, UniSA Sports Science Hub, SA Athletics Stadium, and Netball SA Stadium at Mile End.
The global sports technology market was valued at US$12.17 billion in 2021 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 19.6% from 2022 to 2030. With the growing demand for data-driven decision-making and operations in sports events, the sports tech industry is expected to experience significant growth due to the increased adoption of data analytics, IoT, and social media integration in various sports.
The demand for technology-based solutions in the sports sector is driven by a focus on enhancing audience engagement and entertainment, and the digitisation of stadiums. The market has seen growth with increased investments by organisations in adopting advanced technologies for monitoring player performance and fan engagement.
The UniSA Sports Science Hub provides UniSA sports science students with real-world learning opportunities, the chance to work with top industry professionals and elite athletes, and a well-rounded education for a successful career.
UniSA Vice Chancellor Professor David Lloyd states the new facility will offer dynamic, connected learning experiences for students. He stated that the new UniSA Sports Science Hub offers exceptional potential for enhancing research, education, and commercial partnerships with SASI and other sports industry partners located at the same site.
Coaches and health professionals will collaborate to conduct innovative research to better equip athletes for competition. The UniSA Sports Science Hub boasts state-of-the-art facilities and expertise to provide top-notch education, training, and research, benefiting South Australia’s sports industry both now and in the future.
The new UniSA Sports Science Hub, the only one of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere, features specialised teaching and research areas such as exercise classrooms, biomechanics labs, exercise testing gear, and an environmental chamber.
The new facility aims to inspire children to participate in sports, allowing them to reap the physical, mental, and social benefits. To motivate the children, South Australia’s athletes representing the state on a global level need access to top-notch facilities, and this project will provide them for the long term. The new SASI-UniSA partnership demonstrates South Australia’s sports industry’s innovative and pioneering spirit.
The Minister for Recreation, Sport and Racing emphasised that the new facilities will motivate future generations to participate more in sports and physical activity. She added that some of South Australia’s greatest athletes developed their talent in Adelaide at SASI. When these and other remarkable athletes excel, future generations are motivated, leading to an increase in sports and physical activity participation.
The Minister also said that as sports institutes worldwide adopt advancing technology for a competitive advantage, the cutting-edge SASI facility will maintain South Australia’s leadership in sports performance and research, aid staff and athletes, and enable more young athletes to pursue their athletic aspirations. Works are set to commence in early 2023, with the project expected to be completed by mid-2024.
HKSTP has entered a strategic partnership with a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company to position Hong Kong and the Greater Bay Area as a leader in life science innovation and set an example for the region. This is the first collaboration between HKSTP and the life sciences corporation that encompasses technology and data sharing.
The two are committed to promoting life science innovation and healthcare policy. They aim to provide a robust platform and support for start-ups in Hong Kong and mainland China by creating an ecosystem for healthcare start-ups. The goal is to make the Greater Bay Area a leader in life science and healthcare innovation and serve as a model for the rest of China in terms of technology application and registration. Additionally, they hope to establish the GBA as a hub for talent and corporates in the Asia Pacific region.
The principal areas of collaboration are:
- Shaping Policy – A white paper to articulate policy recommendations, organising a public forum and a round-table for an in-depth discussion with government officials;
- Co-incubation program – providing the start-ups with support and guidance on science, strategy and marketing, and creating a platform for the start-ups and potential partners to network and exchange; and,
- Data collaboration – Fostering a conducive data-sharing environment in the STP Platform and among stakeholders; exploring synthetic data generation tools; promoting the “data collaboration” concept to the community.
The Secretary for Innovation, Technology and Industry was one of the witnesses to the Collaboration Agreement Signing Ceremony, he stated that the partnership aligns with the Hong Kong Innovation and Technology Development Blueprint recently released.
With the strong support from the Central Government and the government’s commitment to I&T development, as well as Hong Kong’s unique advantages, the partnership will greatly contribute to the development of a world-class biomedical ecosystem in Hong Kong.
The CEO of HKSTP stated that the partnering firm is a global pharmaceutical leader with strong connections to business leaders, scientists, marketers, and investors globally. It is believed that the partnership will foster the development of more health talents and significantly speed up growth in our medical research, drug development, and clinical trial processes.
The Head of the firm’s China-based innovation centre stated that the company is so glad to see this collaboration happen. It is hoped that the partnership can bridge HK and other cities in China for more opportunities to exchange, collaborate and empower start-ups; accelerate conversion and commercialisation; and to bringing hope to patients in China.
The APAC Sub Region 3 Head of the firm’s diagnostics arm noted that Hong Kong has a great foundation of scientific research. The firm looks forward to this collaboration in advancing high-quality research work, building a platform for innovation and benefiting the Asian population as well as the rest of the world.
The launch ceremony was attended by various dignitaries including the Under Secretary for Innovation, Technology and Industry; the Commissioner for Innovation and Technology, the Head of APAC Area at the firm, the Head of the firm’s accelerator (CICoR), the General Manager, Hong Kong and Macau and Mr Ronald Lo, General Manager, at the firm’s Hong Kong and Macau diagnostics arms.
Recent research has found that the global life science analytics market size was valued at US$ 8.3 billion in 2021, and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.7% from 2022 to 2030. This growth is driven by the increasing adoption of analytics by the life science industry, which uses descriptive and reporting analysis for building databases and prescriptive and predictive analysis for predicting future trends and results.
Adapting, adopting and shifting methods, models and processes are unavoidable as technology develops and advances. Manufacturing robots, artificial intelligence and machine learning are just a few examples of rapidly evolving new technologies.
These technologies have the potential to save costs while enhancing output and quality. They have a vast scope and the potential to revolutionise existing enterprises and personal lives. They can make people’s lives easier while also requiring less human engagement.
Companies have realised that such cutting-edge solutions can take over specific roles and increase operational accuracy, production and efficiency. Automation and digital improvements have improved analytical, technical, and management capacities. Even today, many large technology organisations have reached a broad economic scale without a large staff base.
As a result, the workforce and skillset needs will change. Organisations require fewer people in roles managed by tech creating a greater need for employees with specific abilities.
The impact and opportunities
In an exclusive interview with Mohit Sagar, CEO and Editor-in-Chief OpenGov Asia, Michael Baron, CEO & Director of Baron Consulting Group, Singapore, believes technology changes will be positive for most people. But technological advancement may disappoint others because they may be concerned that technologies may replace their jobs.
“There will be proactive people and that people who are reactive. It is important to understand that further development is essential for people, companies and governments, to keep the nations and businesses competitive. So, I think the future will positively impact those who want to embrace the technologies. We need to focus on development rather than on keeping everyone happy,” explains Michael.
People can embrace the new technology with better utilisation. As an example, he shared how people will have gotten used to a pass-card ticketing system. Some time ago, the technology was introduced in several countries in Southeast Asia and Australia. People had to learn to adapt to the new ticketing system if they wanted to use the public transport system. While initially challenging for many, people have gotten used to it and, indeed, prefer it.
Baron urges people to view new technology as a unique opportunity. Change happens all the time in almost all spheres – sometimes rapidly and other times gradually. Businesses need to adjust their service offerings based on technological developments. It may require performing specific technology-related tasks for the companies which are no longer relevant.
“I recall a very old Chinese saying that every crisis is an opportunity. You can say that I lost my job and I lost my business proposition many times and I don’t see it as drama. I see it as an opportunity. See it as an interesting experience, a natural transformation,” Baron offers.
From a personal perspective, the analytics engine, for instance, has helped him to become a better chess player. The tools can help him to perform better in online chess games by analysing his game, understanding his mistakes and what opportunities he misses and suggesting what he should learn and how he can do better next time.
The same idea goes for organisations or governments. The private and public sectors can do better through digital transformation and utilise technological advancement to maintain their position in the marketplace. It’s not a matter of enjoying it or not embracing the norm, it’s a matter of survival. It’s a matter of remaining relevant, of addressing the challenges by delivering better.
According to Baron, what is happening now is that traditional players are losing market share very fast and possibly don’t even understand the market anymore. So, it is vital to reshape themselves, adopt new goals and embrace new technology.
As a big fan of predictive analytics, he believes that analytics can break into the past to build a better future. Citing a Greek philosopher that said history repeats itself implies this results in variations in a range of operations. So predictive analytics will play a role in calculating the future based on what happened in the past and emulate it for future problems.
In terms of challenges, Baron believes that security, privacy and controls will still be a big problem in the future. Ethical factors are also emerging around the globe today. Organisations with international presence have to comply with all the multiple countries’ respective laws and regulations regarding data ownership and management.
Sooner or later, organisations need to ensure compliance. Even though technology tends to develop faster than legal frameworks, ultimately all countries create regulatory frameworks.
Cultural spirit and political drive
Baron is convinced that both the private and public sectors can drive the technology improvements. Whether it is public or private-driven innovation, it is essential to keep forward-facing if an organisation or a nation intends to survive.
He acknowledges several governments’ efforts to stay ahead of the digital transformation journey, such as Japan, China and Singapore. These countries demonstrate how they can be leaders through cultural spirit and technology utilisation rather than only depending on their natural resources.
After World War Two, Japan’s economy was in a very difficult situation, dealing with the devastation and a lack of natural resources. They faced these challenges head-on by utilising technology and aggressively pursuing digital solutions. Eventually, they not only became a leading economy but were a global benchmark for development.
China, too, has a robust digital and technology vision for the country and has seen remarkable success. From a largely agrarian/rural society, it is now the second-largest economy worldwide. It is a great example of how political will plays a significant role in driving technology-enabled progress.
As for Singapore, the country has become a leading exponent of technology and digital innovation. Compensating for a lack of resources with heavy investment in technological development, innovation and education. They have harnessed their multicultural heritage and been wise in how they use their existing resources. Infrastructure, policies and pathways have made the nation a preferred destination for investment and international tech workers.
LKYGBPC entrepreneurial pathway
Technology development has a massive impact on future employment, hence the entrepreneurial path is one of the solutions to answering the challenge. As a member of the International Judging Panel (IJP) for the Lee Kuan Yew Global Business Plan Competition (LKYGBPC), Baron encourages people not just to embrace the ideas of others but to work with their ideas. He believes that everybody has something to bring to the table.
Teaching about technologies and related subjects, helping people acquire the necessary skills and traits, and providing the right environment is essential to foster entrepreneurship. But a little more is needed to create a culture of entrepreneurship.
He considers the international competition a fantastic way to bring a lot of global talent together to actualize their dream, to be inspired, express their concerns,and to find solutions. The competition creates the right environment to put ideas together and tailor them to suit specific marketplaces.
The competition is a chance for people with ideas to organise themselves, present their ideas to the big wide world and have a shot at being successful. To Baron, there should be more calls for international competitions they allow ideas to travel beyond the borders to create a better future for the world.
Data has been regarded as critical in developing China’s data services economy and promoting industrial and government digitalisation. According to a whitepaper published by the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT), China ranks first in terms of the total number of accepted patents linked to big data, accounting for more than half of all globally in 2021.
Recognising its significance, China has increased its investment in big data research. The white paper revealed that China accounted for 31% of the world’s published studies on big data.
CAICT demonstrated that the general level of China’s big-data technology industry has substantially improved, innovation capacity is being expanded, and the market forecast is widely acknowledged. In 2021, the total number of big-data market participants in China will approach 180,000, and investment in big-data-related firms will reach a new high of 80 billion yuan (US$11.6 billion).
“In 2022, China continues to step up its efforts in terms of policies, talent, and money, providing a significant push for the continuing growth of big data,” told Yu Xiaohui, CAICT’s head.
The whitepaper gave at the 5th Data Asset Management Conference. It gave a comprehensive overview and analysis of the current situation, difficulties, and developments in data storage and computing, data management, data circulation, data application, and data security.
As a realisation step to its big data objectives, China’s investment in large data centres is predicted to increase by more than 20% per year (2021-25). As a result, cumulative investment in linked industries is expected to exceed 3 trillion yuan (US$ 471 billion), according to the country’s top economic regulator.
Furthermore, the country has approved the construction of eight national computing hubs and proposals for ten national data centre clusters to increase overall computing power and resource efficiency.
As per National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) data, 25 new projects were launched in the ten national data centre clusters this year, resulting in a total investment of more than 190 billion yuan (US$ 28,7 billion). Investment in western regions has increased six-fold over the previous year, accounting for 60% of overall investment. The NDRC declared that the next stage would be to increase efforts to successfully encourage investment in upstream and downstream industries and promote the large-scale and green development of Big Data centres.
Meanwhile, the scale of China’s big data industry is expected to exceed 3 trillion RMB (US$ 471 billion) by 2025, with a compound growth rate of about 25%, according to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s (MIIT) development plan.
The plan also intends to establish a data element value evaluation system, strengthen the basis of the big data industry, create a stable and efficient industrial chain, and encourage the growth of the industrial environment.
MIIT also called for improved cross-border big data security management in a five-year strategy until 2025. The initiative comes as the country moves forward with its data and technology regulatory framework. It reaffirms data as a production factor and a national strategic resource.
Aside from that, China recognises that, as data volumes increase, it must adopt laws to promote the effective use and circulation of public, personal, and corporate data and strengthen governance over data resources. Accordingly, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council, or Cabinet, generates a plan to develop a data ownership system, a circulation and trading system, and a way to distribute digital currency.
The new guidelines are intended to encourage the lawful and efficient use of data to empower the real economy and allow individuals to benefit from the rise of the digital economy. The new policies also will enable the country to respond to the global technological revolution and industrial transformation while increasing its international competitiveness.
The first national data centre (PDN) in Indonesia, according to Minister of Communication and Informatics Johnny G. Plate, will be designed as a green government cloud built to Tier-4 standards – the best data centre standard in the world.
The PDN will be located about 40 kilometres from Jakarta and will have 25,000 processor cores, 40 Petabytes of storage, and 200 TB of memory.
“Everything is green and environmentally friendly. However, it’s not easy because you must meet the standards and certification requirements,” Minister Johnny explained to media workers after an inspection of the National Data Centre construction site in the Greenland International Industrial Centre Deltamas area of Cikarang, Bekasi, West Java.
According to Minister Johnny, the global Tier-4 International Standards require an uninterrupted data centre with a water-cooling system. Therefore, in terms of power supply or electricity, 20 Megawatts will be provided for the first time, with the capacity to be increased to 80 Megawatts to ensure its availability with no downtime.
Minister Johnny has encouraged the team to expedite the construction of Indonesia’s first National Data Centre (PDN). The centre’s construction is scheduled to last 24 months. The PDN’s effective operational date begins with fulfilling all contract precedent conditions. PDN construction has been underway for approximately two months since the project’s inception.
“I believe the progress is much faster than 8% because there is a lot of progress that is not physically visible, such as design issues or other management issues that have been completed, but these developments must be submitted regularly,” said Minister Johnny.
Nonetheless, the Minister of Communication and Information emphasised that he would conduct direct and periodic monitoring in the form of a progress review meeting so that construction could proceed more quickly and without incident.
Establishing this data centre is critical to support more efficient and effective state administration. PDN supports data interoperability to create One Data Indonesia or the government’s data-driven policy. According to the minister, the existence of PDN will benefit all government agencies’ services and the development of national digital talent.
According to Minster Johnny, the presence of PDN can support digital human resource development programmes. Including bolstering the Ministry of Communication and Information’s efforts to prepare digital literacy training, Digital Talent Scholarships, and Digital Leadership Academy to support the government in the SPBE framework, thevdigital economy, MSMEs and Ultra Micro Go Digital and various creations of innovations in the digital sector.
The first government data centre was built through a collaboration between Indonesia and France, with a contract value of EUR 164.6 million (US$175.64 million). Johnny explained that the French government is funding 85% of the development, and 15% is funded by pure Rupiah APBN. In addition, the French government has made a 15% down payment, or the equivalent of IDR 376 billion (US$24 million).
Meanwhile, in separate conversations, Semuel Abrijani Pangerapan, Director General of Informatics Applications at the Ministry of Communication and Informatics, revealed the PDN ecosystem includes cloud computing, big data analytics and artificial intelligence, blockchain, and the metaverse. Hence The National Data Centre is expected to result in intelligent and modern governance.
The Ministry has planned four PDN development sites: the Deltamas Industrial Estate (Jabodetabek) area, the Nongsa Digital Park (Batam) area, East Kalimantan’s new National Capital City (IKN), and Labuan Bajo, East Nusa Tenggara.
Following the initial PDN construction in Cikarang, West Java, the second PDN will be built in the Nongsa neighbourhood of Batam City, Riau Archipelago Province. At this location, a fibre optic network capable of connecting the area and its environs to western Indonesia already exists. The second PDN development site will be in IKN and Labuan Bajo, East Nusa Tenggara.
As the importance of data has grown in recent years, China has taken steps to develop policies that would promote the effective use and circulation of public, personal, and corporate data following rules, as well as increase governance over data resources. It has also emphasised the importance of developing a system that ensures the unhindered flow of data across the border securely and legally.
A document was released by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council, or Cabinet. The paper outlined strategies for developing the fundamental infrastructure for data governance and effectively utilising data, which will energise the digital economy.
The paper empowers the real economy and allows the public to profit more from digital progress, critical components of the digital economy’s growth. The initiative includes creating a data ownership system, a circulation and trading system, and a method for distributing digital currency.
According to a National Development and Reform Commission official, the new rules are meant to encourage the lawful and efficient use of data to empower the real economy and allow people to share the benefits of the digital economy’s growth. According to the official, the new measures will enable the country to respond to the global technological revolution and industrial transformation while improving its international competitiveness.
Another issue addressed in the document is the importance of lowering the threshold for market participants to gain access to data while strengthening personal information protection and establishing a system for identifying individuals’ and companies’ rights in the production, transfer, and use of data. China will also create an authorisation process for the use of personal data and take steps to standardise the use of this information by enterprises and avoid excessive data collection.
Data is the core element for the growth of the digital economy, according to Ouyang Rihui, Professor of Digital Economics at the Chinese Internet Economy Research Institute at the Central University of Finance and Economics, and the latest policy document has laid the groundwork for making it a critical factor in digital growth.
He explained that the steps would assist in transforming data into development resources and preparing it for market alignment. Notably, the agreement seeks to balance protecting personal information and its research and use.
The policy was set up to encourage the efficient use and circulation of public, personal, and corporate data in accordance with rules and to strengthen data resource governance. The government will coordinate efforts to create efficient, standardised data trading platforms, a single set of trading and security technologies, and infrastructure facilities for data circulation.
Internationally, China will accelerate the development of infrastructure for cross-border digital trade and will take an active part in developing international standards and procedures for data flow, security, certification, and evaluation, as well as digital currencies.
The documents include taking initiatives such as fostering cooperation between Chinese and foreign enterprises and organisations and supporting foreign investors’ efforts to enter newly opened sectors to enhance the orderly two-way cross-border flow of data.
It also emphasised the importance of conducting national security reviews of activities such as data processing, cross-border data flow, and foreign investor mergers and acquisitions. China will reject data hegemony and protectionism and develop compelling answers to some countries’ long-arm jurisdictions.
Yang Qiang, Head of the Computer Science and Engineering Department at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, wrote in a research paper that China had maintained an advantage in the development of standards for cross-border data flow because of its leading technologies in data security and privacy protection, robust computing foundation, and massive digital economy.
According to Yang, contributing to developing rules and standards for digital technologies will boost China’s discourse power in digital trade, improve its autonomous bilateral and multilateral alliances, and protect China’s interests in the global revenue-sharing process.
A worldwide market with fair competition is in the world’s best interests and that extreme data protectionism is the wrong option. Encouraging foreign enterprises to engage in data services will allow them to explore the value of sharing data, play an active role in newly opened industries, and stimulate the establishment of international rules to ensure fair competition.