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If the only time you’ve heard of Helsinki was during an episode of Money Heist, you’d very much be forgiven. The capital of Finland is far, far, far away from Singapore – 9,248 km to be exact.
That said, according to the Smart City Index 2020 published by Switzerland-based business school Helsinki has plenty in common with Singapore. The two cities have consistently ranked amongst the top 5 smartest cities in the world.
And while the city has quite a lot of projects going on, we’ve decided to focus on ‘smart mobility’ as a theme for this particular article.
Helsinki has aimed to become a world leader in smart mobility – it has set a goal of making it unnecessary for any citizen to own a private car by 2025!
Mobility as a Service (MaaS)
You’ve heard of Software as a Service (Saas) – a method of software delivery and licensing in which software is accessed online via a subscription, rather than bought and installed on individual computers. But how about Mobility as a Service (MaaS)?
In Helsinki, you can book (and pay for) buses, trains, taxis, bikes, rental cars, and more — all from a single app. Instead of owning a car, users pay a subscription that allows them to use a wide range of transport offerings.
The said app is Whim – developed in Helsinki by Finnish company MaaS Global and has been in operation since 2017, making Helsinki the first city with a comprehensive MaaS offering.
For users who frequently travel by different public transportation methods, a subscription to Whim — Whim Urban 30, Whim Weekend and Whim Unlimited, will enable them to make the most out of their subscription fee.
It benefits its users by offering the best bang for your buck, as it allows the use of a wide variety of different transportation at a much cheaper cost – a fixed subscription fee.
The cheapest Whim subscription will only set them back by 60 euros a month.
Along with the conveniences of having the 30day HSL ticket on your mobile phone, users can then enjoy unlimited 30-minute trips with city bikes, flexibility and comfort of flat rate taxis, affordable rental cars and access to the TIER and VOI e-scooters.
If you only occasionally need a car of your own – Whim Urban 30 offers the simplest way of renting an economy car at just 49 euros per day (according to availability).
Compared to the price of owning a personal car which costs anywhere between 233 and 260 euros a month to operate and maintain (Yle Uutiset, 2018), the cheapest Whim subscription plan will only set them back by 60 euros a month.
PS: Interestingly, Whim seems to be in beta in Singapore.
All-weather smart bus — GACHA
The first autonomous driving bus for all weather conditions, GACHA, made its debut in Jätkäsaari, a testing ground for new mobility solutions located in Helsinki.
The development of GACHA began when MUJI and Sensible collectively noticed that the first generation of autonomous buses failed to perform even in light rain. Considering the harsh winter and rainy conditions in Helsinki, GACHA aims to operate as part of the city’s existing transportation systems in 2021 to improve the accessibility of commuters in the city.
GACHA has the capacity to fit approximately 8 passengers in the vehicle at once.
In an ageing society where future shortages of drivers are inevitable, GACHA demonstrates its potential to be a safe and convenient option for commuting in both urban and suburban areas.
Does GACHA sound like something Singapore would do? You’re absolutely right.
We might not be developing a winterproof 8-seater bus roaming our roads, but autonomous vehicles are currently being trialled in several parts of Western Singapore – most noticeably One North as well at NTU. Read more about our own efforts here.
Uber for Boats
Bout, named as the “Uber for boats” platform, is another mobility service that piloted its test rides in Jätkäsaari in 2018. Bout increases the accessibility of Helsinki’s archipelago and coastal locations by connecting people who need boat rides with residents who provide them.
With over 50 pre-defined pick-up locations in the coastal areas of Helsinki and Espoo, travellers can book rides through the platform’s smartphone application.
In Singapore, we might not have the waterways needed to support such an operation, but we are trialling something that’s same-same but different: helicopter taxis, touted to be the world’s first!
Open data policy creates mobility for the blind
According to the Mayor of Helsinki, Jan Vapaavuori, Helsinki has the most open government in the world – and that is what sets it apart from its surrounding cities – the principle of transparency.
With an open data policy, Helsinki wants to make its data available to all of its people – entrepreneurs, designers, developers, and residents included. In doing so, the city hopes to encourage the creation of new services that will improve the lives of its citizens.
One of the most successful innovations based on the open data policy is a smartphone GPS app, BlindSquare. Developed in Helsinki with the help of an open data source — Foursquare, the GPS app was designed with the visually impaired in mind.
To ensure safe and reliable travelling, the app has a self-voicing function that delivers detailed points of interest to its users. With BlindSquare, the visually impaired can achieve independence during their outdoor commutes.
An open data policy is also what Singapore believes in as well, and we’ve got data.gov.sg – our own effort to make it easier for citizens or businesses to create useful projects using data that have been diligently collected.
If anything, the projects in Helsinki remind us that there are still many opportunities that are just waiting to be explored in the exciting world of tech. Whether you live in the freezing north, or the sunny tropics, the possibilities for innovation are endless.
Photo Credit: www.tech.gov.sg
Two tech companies operating under Hong Kong’s Smart Government Innovation Lab have rolled out solutions that are now ready to be acquired by companies and institutions.
Solution I – Heritage Conservation Platform
The company under the Lab has proposed a comprehensive solution for heritage conservation that encompasses data capture, 3D modelling, and online visualisation of realistically rendered models. It supports a variety of capturing sensors and raw data types, including camera images, LiDAR point clouds, and RGB-D data, and can be used with stationary, handheld, robotic, or UAV platforms. With high-precision modelling, realistic texturing and rendering, and a lightweight web-based visualisation platform, this solution is ideal for archiving, exhibiting, renovating, and educational purposes.
The solution was designed to be applied in the areas of City Management, Education, Infrastructure, Recreation and Culture as well as Tourism.
The solution employs the latest in Artificial Intelligence (AI), Augmented Reality, Cloud Computing, Data Analytics, Deep Learning, Mixed Reality as well as Virtual Reality.
In Hong Kong, there are 132 declared monuments and over 1000 historic buildings with significant heritage value. To safeguard and preserve this archaeological and architectural heritage, a comprehensive 3D surveying record is essential for future preservation and monitoring against potential damage or destruction.
Currently, LiDAR scanning and image records are widely used for digital preservation, but the disorganized data and large size make them difficult to use and constructing 3D models from raw scanning data is time-consuming and labour-intensive.
The company has developed a cutting-edge AI-assisted algorithm that can accurately convert raw captured data into 3D models at a cost-effective price. The structured 3D models have the advantage of low data volume, ease of access, and meaningful information for engineers. The solution offered is modular and covers the entire process from data collection to 3D model generation and online visualization, offering great flexibility.
To raise public awareness, promote participation, and enhance cultural tourism, the company provides a realistically rendered 3D model and a lightweight, web-browser-based visualization that can be accessed from anywhere and on any device.
Solution II – LifeOnline: Smart Personal Emergency System for Law Enforcement
Law enforcement officers face various dangers on a regular basis. LifeOnline is a tool that keeps officers, especially those working alone in remote areas, connected with their team. In emergency situations, officers can seek help from their supervisor by pressing an SOS button on their smartphone. If they encounter danger, such as falling from a height or a medical emergency, the smartwatch will notify their team.
Using long-range wireless communication technology, LoraWAN, officers can stay connected even in remote areas covered by the government’s GWIN IOT network. If necessary, portable LoraWAN gateways and concentrators can further extend network coverage. The compact size of the smartwatch allows it to be used as standard equipment for law enforcement officers in their daily operations.
The solution was designed to be applied across the areas of Health as well as Law and Security.
The solution employs the latest in Cloud Computing, the Internet of Things (IoT) as well as Mobile Technologies.
The officers are connected with their teams and could get help in dangerous and emergency situations.
Market merchants in Quezon City, Philippines, can now apply for and book spaces and booths online using the Market One-Stop Shop platform (MOSS). According to City Administrator Michael Alimurung, the portal would identify “legal” vendor spaces free of impediments. It is also part of Quezon City Mayor Joy Belmonte’s ambition of making the city a desirable business location.
With the new system, the city government promises a smooth application process for renting a stall, including payment and collection of market rentals. This will also make the city treasurer’s office’s job easier because they will no longer have to collect rent in person.
To ensure that the new system is widely adopted, the local administration put free Wi-Fi connection points in barangay halls and hundreds of other public venues. A caravan will be launched to assist existing and prospective vendors in registering with the platform.
“Imagine treating the entire city as a public market. This method allows us to locate vendor locations online. It’s thinking broader by allowing us to treat the entire city in terms of how to assist our vendors,” Alimurung told at a press conference at Quezon City Hall.
Margarita Santos, director of the Quezon City Business Permits and Licensing Office, stated that the system would not replace any positions, such as market masters or market managers, but would make their tasks easier.
She stated that the MOSS would use a “first in, first out” queuing system and offer a five-year contract to the first vendor that applied for the space or stand. However, if they cannot satisfy the requirements within a specific number of days, they will be returned to the bottom of the queue,” Santos noted.
Market inspectors will check IDs supplied to registered merchants to guarantee that the correct renters occupy registered booths. Currently, over 12,000 sellers occupy public market stalls in the city. Those are our objectives. In addition, we want to incorporate 43 private markets.
According to Santos, the MOSS would also assist in eliminating red tape and corruption, such as those who reserve marketplaces and then rent them out to other merchants. Because this is an online system, we have a digital trail that allows us to see where the application took too long, who is at fault and admonish them.
Santos added that the system would also record vendor transgressions, which might result in losing their registration area or stall. She stated that registered vendors would be queued online once these areas are full until free space becomes available.
Procopio Lipana, Programmes and Projects Officer, stated that the site would make it easier for the city government and other law enforcement agencies to identify and apprehend unlawful sellers. Quezon City has an anti-hawker division and market inspectors who verify stall sizes and look for illicit merchants.
Indonesia is also working to improve digitisation in the conventional sector. Indonesia’s Ministry of Trade has targeted digitising 1,000 traditional markets and one million MSMEs as part of its digital transformation strategy. There are now 2,047 traditional markets that use local market websites through the Trade Facility Information System (TFIS), ten traditional markets that use digital marketing, and 51 conventional markets that operate QRIS for non-cash transactions.
According to Vice Minister of Trade Jerry Sambuaga, 326 traditional markets in 42 sub-districts have implemented e-retribution, 106,702 local traders, and 9.7 million MSME dealers have made non-cash transactions through QRIS.
The government of Indonesia’s digitalisation efforts have helped the country attain IDR980 trillion (US$ 63 billion), or 5.7% of GDP, by 2021. Indonesia’s GDP is predicted to reach IDR24 trillion (US$1.5 trillion) in 2030, with the digital economy accounting for 18% of GDP, or approximately IDR4,531 trillion (US$ 290 million).
Singapore’s Minister for Defence officiated the launch of the Heat Resilience and Performance Centre (HRPC) recently at the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (NUS Medicine). HRPC is a tripartite collaboration between the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF), NUS, and DSO National Laboratories (DSO).
The partnership leverages the best of local and global expertise, including thermal physiologists and climate researchers, to address the long-term challenges of maintaining human performance amidst rising temperatures in the region and the world.
HRPC is exploring to bolster soldiers’ heat resilience and performance and observed a demonstration of data collection and analysis using wireless body sensor networks.
Speaking at the opening ceremony, the Minister noted that HRPC is part of the SAF’s effort to mitigate the impact of heat stress on soldiers and enable them to continue to train and operate effectively and safely amidst rising ambient heat.
MINDEF, SAF and DSO doctors, scientists and engineers have been working with other national experts to deal decisively with and prevent heat injuries. The tripartite partnership seeks to continue to enhance the relations between operations, technology and research institutions, tap into local and global expertise, and leverage key technology enablers like deep data science and artificial intelligence to develop innovative heat mitigation strategies.
While the pool of local experts in the field of heat injury prevention is limited, the HRPC will tap into the best-in-class researchers from both local and overseas. HRPC will, thus, be increasingly important for the health of not only our soldiers but the public as ambient temperature rises.
HRPC is a dedicated, one-stop research entity that brings together subject matter experts from the local defence ecosystem and NUS, to drive and conduct heat resilience and performance research to mitigate the challenges posed to training and operations due to global warming.
The Centre will contribute to and leverage national efforts in relevant areas of research, and provide dedicated expertise support for MINDEF/SAF’s long-term heat resilience strategies. The Director of HRPC also said that in addition to heat injuries and performance degradation, excessive heat stress can also compromise decision-making, leading to accidents.
Heat can be an enabler for physiological adaptations if harnessed correctly. HRPC seeks to add value to the expanding narrative of heat health and performance research to provide forward-looking solutions that proactively augments heat resilience in our people amidst rising global temperatures.
The Minister for Defence was accompanied by the Chief of Army, Dean NUS Medicine, CEO DSO and other senior members from the SAF, NUS and DSO.
Some of the cutting-edge solutions and strategies that the Centre is looking at to build heat resilience and optimise performance in individuals amidst rising ambient temperatures include a network of wireless sensors that can capture and assess an individual’s heat status before the point of overexertion is reached as well as an intelligent fabric which collects and stores data patterns happening in the human body.
The HRPC will focus on three key research thrusts:
- Discover – Build a robust database through the aggregation and analysis of existing and emerging data which allow the development and continuous refinement of physiological research models. These data-driven capabilities will sharpen the centre’s research focus, drive the testing of new research hypotheses, and uncover new mechanisms and predictive factors. This will enable HRPC to be at the forefront of discovering, developing and refining solutions for heat resilience.
- Detect – Visualising and making sense of an individual’s heat-health and readiness status. This thrust focuses on developing the capability to visualise and interpret the heat-health status of individuals in real-time, allowing for the development of personalised training programmes for heat management, active risk management and training optimisation. These algorithms can not only predict the risk of heat injury, but also personalise training to be more time efficient, improve performance and yield greater results from heat resilience training.
- Strengthen – Developing state-of-the-art tools and technology-enabled approaches to boost heat resilience. This thrust explores different advanced technologies and approaches, to develop more efficient strategies for heat resilience in humans. Investigations into these technologies will be guided by in-depth understanding of physiology, biology, psychology, as well as the social and behavioural responses to rising heat.
The Chengdu Network Administration Office in China released Chengdu’s business environment 5.0 and the Ten Measures for Continuously Optimising and Improving Chengdu’s Business Environment (Ten Measures).
As a guide, the Ten Measures actively promotes usage scenarios by intensifying the application of government affairs data, electronic certificates, electronic seals, and electronic files, and upgrades and enables data to empower the development of a business environment and advantage more enterprises in various places.
Chengdu will also enhance cross-departmental, cross-field, and cross-level intercommunication by accelerating system connectivity and data exchange of public utility platforms at all levels.
Chengdu’s service quality and efficiency will be vastly improved. The local government will expand government service items such as enterprise registration, change, and other government service items.
In addition, the city will enable financing loans, social security employment and policy pushes for firms following the application to increase the ease of handling and approval efficiency.
The city is committed to consistently improving market player satisfaction and the effectiveness of investment and entrepreneurship and creating a highland for development and entrepreneurship.
Chengdu will develop a full-process online office for engineering construction project approval, promote the electronification of engineering construction project approval materials and confirmation results and automated certificates “one-time generation, unified circulation, conformity assessment and sharing” to maximise the quality and efficiency of engineering approval services. The new approach will reduce businesses’ resources and time to apply for construction permits.
According to the Chengdu Network Administration Office’s Business Environment Construction Division, the Ten Measures list the reform items of the national business environment innovation pilot reforms, combined with the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle, the Park City Demonstration Zone and the Chengdu Metropolitan Circle.
Chengdu will use the standardised address and registration model to make it easier for businesses to start. Furthermore, it will extend the reform of “one licence, multiple addresses and optimise market entities’ access and exit mechanisms. The information updates of enterprise branches and chain stores will be incorporated into the same city general office. A closure system will be established to facilitate market entity termination.
Simultaneously, the rule will implement one-stop joint services for enterprises and the public, such as water, electricity, and so on, as well as reform the “land use list system” for social investment projects in functional areas such as free trade pilot zones and industrial parks. The plan review is integrated with time management.
The city believes approval time can be successfully decreased by optimising the approval department’s internal approval process and enhancing the approval process’s oversight and notification mechanism, as well as the firms’ waiting time and handling costs.
Cleaning up and cancelling disparities in enterprise qualification acquisition, bidding, government procurement, and rights protection will be another focus of the law. Non-essential requirements such as excluding and restricting competition must be eliminated. A long-term screening process must be established to break down hidden barriers and unjustified thresholds.
Simultaneously, Chengdu will optimise regulatory resource allocation based on credit risks, promote credit classification and classification in critical areas such as food, engineering construction, auctioning, factory safety, firefighting, medical and health care, and ecological nature conservation, and integrate differentiated surveillance based on risk levels.
To reduce the impact on market players’ production and operation activities, the regulation will investigate the implementation of a list of items that will not be punished for the first violation, as well as a list of items that will not be subject to administrative compulsory measures in the field of market supervision.
The government of Australia’s Northern Territory is ensuring the State’s Hospitals have the best IT systems available to care for patients. The government has successfully rolled out the second stage of its AU$ 259 million patient health record system ‘Acacia’ – which is the biggest project of its type ever undertaken in the NT.
The health system is a digital clinical care software and is now in use at Gove Hospital and Katherine Hospital. In addition, the system is being rolled out at the Top End Renal Services, the latest health service to transition to the new Acacia system for patient administration.
Acacia has rolled out consecutively to four renal dialysis sites across the Top End in November and will occur in Central Australia in early 2023. Staff on site now use Acacia to capture same-day data on dialysis treatments.
The new Acacia system will allow an NT Health clinic nurse in a remote Aboriginal community, or a doctor on an intensive care ward in Darwin, access to the same patient record in real-time and what care has been provided in other care settings.
The Chief Minister and Minister for Health stated that the State Government aims to ensure that the health system is fresh, modern, and sustainable (i.e., that it can provide the best patient care possible). He noted that through the system, the region’s hardworking doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals can access information on patient allergies, alerts and medications making treatment decisions faster and with less risk.
The Acacia System is currently operational in Katherine and Gove Hospitals, and at renal clinics in the Top End. Having a Territory-wide electronic patient database will allow NT Health to better support our transient and most vulnerable Territorians, he added.
About the Acacia Digital Health System
Acacia is a contemporary digital health system that was developed with the intention of replacing NT Health’s current obsolete major systems and integrating a range of other specialised clinical systems to deliver a single, secure, electronic health record across hospitals, primary health care centres and community health services. The system aims to enhance patient and client outcomes, and continuity of care, by providing essential clinical information at the point of care.
In late 2020, the Acacia Read-only Electronic Patient Record was launched. Clinicians in hospitals, remote clinics and urban health facilities across the Territory can now view the medical history, results and treatment of patients – information that was previously only accessible via multiple systems.
In the second half of 2021, the rollout of patient administration, emergency triage, operating theatres and maternity functionality commenced. Acacia has resulted in over 150 specialist ICT jobs over the life of the program with most of these professionals engaged through Territory enterprises.
Under the Digital Territory Strategy blueprint, the Northern Territory aims to enable digitalisation via five core directions:
- Growing Business and Jobs
- Connecting Territory Communities
- Building Digital Skills
- Enabling Smarter Communities
- Improving Government Services
With regard to the last direction, the key focus areas will be to:
- Deliver modern government digital services that are customer-centric and simple to use.
- Reform systems and establish government ICT applications on efficient and sustainable platforms.
- Strengthen digital foundations for government and the community to effectively support and enable the digital transformation journey.
- Maintain secure government systems to protect Territorians’ data.
- Make online identity verification transactions with the government easy.
Johnny G. Plate, Minister of Communication, and Informatics has encouraged Indonesian local governments to vigorously implement the Smart Islands and Smart Villages initiatives which were launched at the G20 Economy Minister Meeting (G20-DEMM).
“We encourage the development of smart islands and villages in addition to smart cities. Specifically, I request that the local government use this digital infrastructure development to provide electronic-based government services to simplify government bureaucracy and licencing,” he said during a working visit to the East Manggarai Regency Office in East Nusa Tenggara.
The local government’s commitment to achieving smart initiatives and implementing an E-Government System (SPBE) is vital. The support of local governments to develop digital infrastructure would be key to the success of establishing a smart nation.
Creating vocational education to produce digital talent is especially important in encouraging the growth of digital spaces such as e-commerce, EdTech, Healthtech, and electronic government. The Ministry of Communication and Informatics is planning community empowerment efforts through digital literacy and talent development to power such innovative initiatives. However, several aspects of the community’s digital training need to be improved, according to the 2022 Indonesia Digital Community Index findings.
The government continues to support downstream development and distribution of digital technology infrastructure across the country. It has prioritised communities in underserved areas by constructing Base Transceiver Stations (BTS), developing smart cities and promoting digital literacy.
The Minister recognises that infrastructure development in East Manggarai, Manggarai, and West Manggarai can be a catalyst for e-commerce, EdTech, Healthtech and Smart City applications and the central government is willing to assist regional governments in achieving smart city goals.
The Smart City Programme consists of six main pillars which form the basis for implementing smart initiatives, namely Smart Governance or Smart Digital Government, Smart Infrastructure, Smart Economy, Smart Living, Smart People and Smart Environment.
One of the key components for accelerating national digital transformation is the availability of digital infrastructure for telecommunications and internet needs. Out of the 66 units built by the government, 53 BTS have been operating in East Manggarai Regency. Meanwhile, the additional 13 BTS are still in the works and will be completed in the first quarter of 2023.
According to Dhia Anugrah Febriansa, the Minister of Communication and Information, the Telecommunications, and Information Accessibility Agency (BAKTI) of the Ministry of Communication and Information and the partners used funds from the State Revenue and Expenditure Budget to build the BTS (APBN).
“To serve the community in all villages/sub-districts in Indonesia’s foremost, outermost, and disadvantaged (3T) areas that have yet to be served by a 4G signal network, particularly in East Manggarai Regency,” he said.
BTS will be a downstream infrastructure that will allow the public to benefit from upstream infrastructure in the form of a broadband fibre-optic cable network. The government has constructed more than 600 kilometres of fibre optic cable network connecting the provinces of East and West Nusa Tenggara via the Sape Strait in West Manggarai. The network is linked to an international route in Perth, Australia.
The SATRIA-I Satellite and the Hot Backup Satellite help provide internet access in schools and health care facilities. In addition, the gateway or earth station on Timor Island, Kupang Regency, Amfoang District, which will serve the entire province, is almost finished.
Similar initiatives to provide internet access in remote areas have been undertaken in several other countries, especially in light of the pandemic. For example, the Philippines rolled out free internet access to more remote islands.
An additional 628 operational free WiFi sites were established as part of the programme, bringing the total number of such WiFi locations throughout the Philippines to 4,757. The government’s free internet services are available to at least 2.1 million unique users, equivalent to about 100,000 families.
The Bengaluru traffic police are rolling out an Intelligent Traffic Management System (ITMS). Artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled cameras will detect traffic violations and issue fines through text messages on offenders’ phones.
The objective is to automatically detect traffic violations in a contactless manner and send auto-generated fines to the violators with minimum human intervention, the special commissioner of police stated. AI and machine learning (ML) technology are used in the ITMS to identify traffic violations automatically.
The ITMS has been implemented at 30 traffic junctions across the city, a report by the government’s AI portal informed. The cameras will detect speed limit violations and red light and stop lane breaches, and offences like helmet-less travel, driving without a seatbelt, triple-riding, and the use of mobile phones while driving.
The system has an AI-enabled solution with 250 automatic number plate recognition cameras and 80 red light violation detection cameras installed at 50 junctions. These cameras, which are active round-the-clock, are expected to save a lot of manpower, which can be redeployed for traffic management and regulation. The data collected with be stored on a server owned by traffic police. In the future, the police force plans to track vehicles without number plates and stolen vehicles.
States across the country are deploying technology to reduce and prevent road accidents and violations. Last year, the Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) implemented AI-based technologies to limit road accidents and improve passenger safety in buses ]. The corporation floated a tender for the implementation of an AI-powered Collision Warning System (CWS) and Driver Drowsiness System (DDS) for 1,044 buses.
In April this year, under the second phase of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY)’s Intelligent Transportation System Endeavor for Indian Cities initiative, an indigenous onboard driver assistance and warning system (ODAWS), a bus signal priority system, and a Common Smart IoT Connectiv (CoSMiC) software were launched.
As OpenGov Asia reported, ODAWS incorporates vehicle-borne sensors to monitor driver propensity and vehicle surroundings that send out acoustic and visual alerts. The project involves sub-modules such as the navigational unit, driver assistance console, and mmWave radar sensor. The positional and dynamic characteristics of surrounding vehicles are probed using the mmWave radar sensors. The navigational sensor provides a precise geospatial orientation of the vehicle as well as trends in driving behaviour. The ODAWS algorithm is used to interpret sensor data and offer real-time notifications to the driver, boosting road safety.
The bus signal priority system is an operational strategy that modifies normal traffic signal operations to better accommodate in-service public buses at signal-controlled intersections. Unlike blind priority, which is only used for emergency vehicles, the system operates using conditional priority. It will minimise person delay by providing priority to public transport buses, either through green extensions or red truncations, considering all vehicles approaching a signalised intersection.
CoSMiC is middleware software that provides the standard-based deployment of the Internet of things (IoT), which follows the oneM2M-based global standard. It facilitates users and application service providers in vertical domains to use application-agnostic open standards and interfaces for end-to-end communication with well-defined common service functionalities. The CoSMiC common service layer is used to interface with any vendor-specific standards and to increase interoperability with smart city dashboards.