Image source: JKPTG or Department of Director General of Lands and Mines (via World Bank report: Enhancing Public Sector Performance: Malaysia’s Experience with Transforming Land Administration
The World Bank has issued
a report outlining Malaysia’s Successes and Challenges in Transforming Land
Administration. The report, titled Enhancing Public Sector Performance: Malaysia’s
Experience with Transforming Land Administration, is part of a
series focusing on documenting the lessons from Malaysia for other developing
countries in improving their public sector management.
Land policies and land administration services are
fundamental for secure land rights, developing land markets and managing land
resources in a manner that best contributes to economic growth, efficient
public sector service delivery, environmental protection, and social cohesion
However, approximately 70 percent of the world’s population
does not have access to affordable land administration systems to secure their
property rights. Many governments lack basic land information systems to secure
land rights, support private sector development or improve public sector
service delivery. Challenges include complexity and costs in establishing
comprehensive land records and maps.
The report notes that recent advances in surveying, mapping
and ICT technologies have made the task of addressing these challenges easier
and cheaper. There are many success stories globally to learn from, but each
country and its land tenure system is unique and there is no universal model
for land administration. Technical solutions need to be fit-for-purpose and
governance of institutions needs to be sound.
Malaysia performs well for land administration globally. It
ranks 42 out of 190 jurisdictions in the ease of registering property in the
annual World Bank Doing Business ranking, which is a good assessment in
relation to other countries in the region. In the Doing Business Report, the
ranking for the quality of land administration is also high at 27.5 out of a
maximum of 30 points.
The World Bank believes that innovative and efficient
mechanisms to improve land tenure security from peninsular Malaysia can help
governments use land as a productive asset.
According to the report, the key factors contributing to
Peninsular Malaysia’s success in registering rights are: provision of qualified
titles; investment in IT systems; and computerisation of land records. The
provision for qualified titles in the National Land Code was followed by a
rapid systematic registration process.
Investment in IT systems and business process re-engineering
has enabled Malaysia to standardise the procedures to register rights in order
to provide more efficient services. The computerisation of land records has
provided a basic dataset to support a Malaysian National Spatial Data
Infrastructure (NSDI) and other data analysis applications such as the
valuation and taxation of property.
The introduction of qualified titles, which allows
registration without a formal cadastral survey (a cadastre is a register of
property showing the extent, value, and ownership of land), helped overcome key
constraints, such as the limited number of government and professional
surveyors and the perceived high cost of formal surveys. Consequently, a successful
initial registration campaign that strengthened land tenure security and
facilitated development of the formal land market. Subsequently, the standards
and processes for cadastral surveys have been gradually improved and a national
program for the conversion of qualified titles to final title has been largely
Business process re-engineering has been essential in
improving service delivery. In 2010 a property transfer taking 144 days. JKPTG (Department
of Director General of Lands and Mines) entered into a major business process
re-engineering exercise. Among the initiatives introduced was the “single piece
flow” which was an adaptation of factory production line procedures. The old
practice of moving documents in one bundle from one point to another was
stopped and a new system introduced to move each application from station to
A checklist of relevant documentation was introduced and a
public awareness campaign undertaken. In four months the land administration
system managed to register 61.12 percent of property transfers on Peninsular
Malaysia in 2 days. Improved record handling systems reduced the effort
required by staff to access and check archived records. The obligatory use of
the Malaysia identity card (MyKad) and thumbprint readers were introduced in
all land offices as a means of reducing fraud and forgery.
Investment in IT
The report says that ICT tools can be effective in
standardising processes, improving service delivery and making spatial and
textual data available for broader use in government and society.
For land registers, JKPTG provides oversight for the
registration system that is implemented by the State authorities on Peninsular
Malaysia. The World Bank report divides the technical evolution of land
administration systems in Malaysia into five stages and there is a planned
sixth stage. Prior to the 1980s, there was a manual land title registration
supported by manual cadastral systems with hardcopy maps and card indices. Computerisation
was introduced in the 1980s, with the creation of the first digital cadastral
databases, electronic indices and Land Revenue Collection System (SHTB). In
1995, computerised land registration systems (SPTB) were introduced in all
State land registries on Peninsular Malaysia.
The early 2000’s saw the introduction of web-enabled land
administration systems with the integration of different government functions
such as planning, taxation, land development and local government. Examples included
e-Cadastre and Modernised Land Administration System (SPPT). In 2005 a web-based land titles system e-Tanah
(e-Land) linking SHTB and CLRS (Computerised Land Registration System) was
introduced in Penang, followed by Malacca and planned for expansion in Kuala
Lumpur (KL). The next planned stage is the development and implementation of
iLand from 2020, as a vision of integrated, spatially enabled land information
available on the internet.
CLRS is operating in all State land registries on Peninsular
Malaysia. But the system has a number of problems and JKPTG has been promoting
the development and implementation of a new digital system called e-Tanah
(e-Land) to addresses these issues.
e-Tanah has been developed with a public portal that
includes: 1) Customer Service (services and procedures, enquire online,
complain, check status and seek help); 2) e-Carian (e-Search) focussed on
Private Title Search; and 3) e-Pembayaran (e-Payment) for the payment of quit
rent online, uploading of payments to State e-Commerce facilities, processing
of credit card payments and checking the status of quit rent payments/arrears.
There will be an internal portal in e-Tanah for the use of
officials in undertaking their work. This portal includes: 1) Single Point of
Contact for one-stop service centres and core modules; 2) Land Disposal Module;
3) Land Development Module; 4) Land Acquisition Module; 5) Title Registration
Module; 6) Strata Title Module; 7) e-Consent Module; 8) Auction Module; 9)
Revenue Module; and 10) Enforcement Module.
The key concept
behind further development of e-Tanah is to integrate land registry data with
other core systems. These systems include e-Kadaster; MyGDI, and e-Stamping,
and future enhancements are planned including e-Dealings and e-Lodgements. The
software system will also facilitate the integration of the registration data
with other key data sets including the national cadastral map series which is
maintained federally by JUPEM.
However, the development of e-Tanah has taken longer than
planned and it has not been accepted by all State governments. Although e-Tanah
is being developed under the coordination of the National Land Council, States
have autonomy in adopting the software. Some States are developing their own,
parallel systems with no assurance that the systems are compliant with national
standards or allow system interoperability.
In response to the limited success with e-Tanah to date, the
Government plans to implement a new e-Tanah pilot in Kuala Lumpur as a model
that the other states on Peninsular Malaysia can adopt. Kuala Lumpur is a
federal territory where the Federal Government has clear authority for land
registration. A new ICT application will be developed with the close
interaction with the State governments to ensure that the software system meets
the needs of the States and is in a form that can readily be customised. In
2016, the Federal government launched a PPP arrangement for development of the
new e-Tanah system.
Partnership Unit for e-Tanah
In 2016, the Federal government launched a PPP (public
private partnership) arrangement for development of the new e-Tanah system. The
PPP is structured as a 14-year concession, with the operator having 2 years for
system development and 12 years to maintain the system, provide services and
make a return on the investment. The Contractor is also providing the hardware
and software but the system will be installed in a government data warehouse
with a government disaster recovery system.
The contractor is also responsible for converting any paper
based records and for regular training and capacity building. The contractor
will develop the core system and provide the source code to Government so that
the software can then be customised according to the requirements of individual
The contractor is also required to update the technology
twice over the course of the concession and is required to develop 9 modules
based on the competencies of the State land registry: registration, strata,
revenue, consent, disposal, development, enforcement, state land acquisition,
and auction in case of foreclosure. The mapping system, e-Kadaster, will remain
a separate system under JUPEM that will be linked with the new e-Tanah along
with other external systems such as inland revenue systems, courts, and
The financing of the PPP is based on an analysis of current
transactions and revenue, cash-flow requirements and the lifespan of the ICT
investment. The land offices will continue to collect fees from the citizens
and the contractor will get payment from the government based on an agreed
portion of the transaction fees and a regular fee/title to maintain the data.
The Federal Government is covering the cost of the system design. At the end of
the concession period the system will be transferred back to Government.
The new e-Tanah database will include the historical land
registration data and the data will remain in Government ownership. The system
is expected to be piloted in Kuala Lumpur in 2017 and then rolled out to other
States, including an upgrade to the existing e-Tanah systems in Penang and
National Spatial Data
Cadastral surveys are recorded in the national cadastral map
series based on the national geodetic datum. JUPEM (Federal Department of
Surveying and Mapping) implemented a geodetic adjustment in 2000 and has
established a Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network with 72
stations that provide Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data to support
a wide range of precise survey and positioning needs and has plans to increase
this network. Accurate positioning would be necessary to allow precise
measurements for development of the NSDI, spatial data integration and
applications such as 3D modelling.
Institutions for NSDI have been established at national and
local levels. The Malaysian Centre for Geospatial Data Infrastructure (MaCGDI)
was established in 2002, taking over the work of the National Infrastructure
for Land Information System (NaLIS).
The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE) has
established the NSDI called MyGDI, with a National Coordinating Committee which
reports to the National Land Council and has, under MaCGDI, established a
National Geospatial Data Centre (NGDC), State Geospatial Data Centres (SGDCs)
and Local Geospatial Data Centres (LGDCs).
MyGDI includes technology, policies, standards and
procedures for producing and sharing geospatial data, supported by a strong ICT
infrastructure. MyGeoportal allows data producers and users to explore, view,
access and evaluate geospatial information through the Metadata Catalogue
called MyGDI explorer. The metadata are linked to a map service for visualisation
of the geospatial data. The MyGeoportal guidelines and circular letters set out the requirements and procedures for agencies for data sharing and dissemination.
MyGDI activities are undertaken at the national level by
MaCGDI, with support from the various technical committees. MaCGDI interacts
with MyGDI State Coordinating and Technical Committees which undertake SDI
activities at the State level. JUPEM and JKPTG are the two main data providers
Currently, geospatial data-sharing in Malaysia through MyGDI
is limited to government agencies only. Private agencies and the public do not
have access to MyGDI, but can request data directly from the relevant agencies.
However, Government agencies have cooperated with utility data suppliers
(utilities/gas/oil/telecom) to establish standards for utility.
The Malaysia Geospatial Online Services (MyGOS) enables
government users to use and share trusted geospatial data, services, and
applications within their group of members.
Many professional users outside of government agencies use
the MyGeoportal. The 1malaysiamap application enables citizens to search and
provide information for points of interest such as shops, restaurants, hotels,
The use of crowdsourcing or volunteer geographic information
(VGI) is increasingly recognised as an important data source for information
and the government plans to link the various systems for all public and private
users in the future.
The Malaysian government plans to adopt a formal strategy
and enact legislation for NSDI. The National Geospatial Master Plan (NGMP),
which will set up a 10-year Strategy (2017–2027) for the implementation of NSDI
policies, is currently being developed. MaCGDI has shared and discussed the
Inception and Interim reports with other Federal and State agencies. A NSDI law
is also being drafted and will formalize the structure, functions and
monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. The 5-year National Plan (Eleventh
Malaysia Plan 2016- 2020) has allocated budget for implementation of the GMP.
The report also recognises some of Malaysia’s challenges. It
recommends the avoidance of complex divisions of national and state land
registries, and to integrate data systems in order to provide complete and
accurate land data to public and private users. If a unified structure does not
exist, it is critical to strengthen coordination between agencies and ensure
Malaysia has a complex national/state division of the
cadastre and land registry, due to which it has proven challenging to integrate
cadastral and land registry data and systems. The most efficient way to ensure
seamless integration is to have a single system for the information under a
single authority. In the absence of an integrated institutional structure, a
strong coordination mechanism with mandatory compliance for data integration is
critical, which has been successfully instituted for Malaysia.
The report also highlights that Malaysia has developed its
NSDI over the past decades through guidelines and standards. However, there is
still no national NSDI strategy or law (as mentioned above, the Government
plans to enact legislation). But this kind of gap can result in discrepancy
between the mission of individual agencies and organisations providing
geospatial data and national policy objectives.
Read the complete report here.
Singapore’s Senior Minister of State for Defence, Heng Chee How, and Senior Minister of State for Communications and Information and Health, Dr Janil Puthucheary, recently visited the Critical Infrastructure Defence Exercise (CIDeX) 2023, underscoring the government’s commitment to fortifying national cybersecurity.
The exercise, held at the National University of Singapore School of Computing, witnessed over 200 participants engaging in operational technology (OT) critical infrastructure defence training.
Organised by the Digital and Intelligence Service (DIS) and the Cyber Security Agency of Singapore (CSA), with support from iTrust/SUTD and the National Cybersecurity R&D Laboratory (NCL), CIDeX 2023 marked a collaborative effort to enhance Whole-Of-Government (WoG) cyber capabilities. The exercise focused on detecting and countering cyber threats to both Information Technology (IT) and OT networks governing critical infrastructure sectors.
This year’s edition boasted participation from DIS, CSA, and 24 other national agencies across six Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) sectors. With an expanded digital infrastructure comprising six enterprise IT networks and three new OT testbeds, participants operated on six OT testbeds within key sectors—power, water, telecom, and aviation.
CIDeX 2023 featured Blue Teams, composed of national agency participants serving as cyber defenders, defending their digital infrastructure against simulated cyber-attacks launched by a composite Red Team comprising DIS, CSA, DSTA, and IMDA personnel. The exercises simulated attacks on both IT and OT networks, including scenarios such as overloading an airport substation, disrupting water distribution, and shutting down a gas plant.
The exercise provided a platform for participants to hone their technical competencies, enhance collaboration, and share expertise across agencies. Before CIDeX, participants underwent a five-day hands-on training programme at the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF)’s Cyber Defence Test and Evaluation Centre (CyTEC) at Stagmont Camp, ensuring readiness for cyber defence challenges.
On the sidelines of CIDeX 2023, the DIS solidified cyber collaboration by signing Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) with key technology sector partners, expanding its partnerships beyond the earlier agreement with Microsoft earlier in the year.
Senior Minister Heng emphasised the importance of inter-agency cooperation, stating, “CIDeX is a platform where we bring together many agencies throughout the government to come together to learn how to defend together.” He highlighted the collective effort involving 26 agencies and over 200 participants, acknowledging the significance of unity in cybersecurity.
Dr Janil echoed this sentiment, emphasising CIDeX’s role in the Whole-of-Government (WoG) cyber defence effort. He remarked, “Defending Singapore’s cyberspace is not an easy task, and it is a team effort.”
He commended the strong partnership between the Cyber Security Agency of Singapore and the Digital and Intelligence Service, recognising the exercise as a crucial element in strengthening the nation’s digital resilience and national cybersecurity posture.
By leveraging collaboration, innovation, and a robust defence strategy, Singapore aims not just to protect its critical infrastructure but to set a global standard in cybersecurity practices.
CIDeX 2023 serves as a compelling embodiment of Singapore’s unwavering dedication to maintaining a leadership position in cybersecurity practices. This strategic exercise underscores the nation’s commitment to cultivating collaboration and fortifying its resilience against continually evolving cyber threats.
Beyond a training ground for sharpening the skills of cyber defenders, CIDeX 2023 encapsulates the government’s profound commitment to adopting a robust, collaborative, and forward-thinking approach to safeguarding the integrity and security of the nation’s critical infrastructure in the dynamic landscape of the digital age.
The Cyberport Entrepreneurship Programmes’ 20th Anniversary Celebration and Graduation Ceremony was a major event attended by notable personalities, distinguished guests and budding innovators.
Cyberport is Hong Kong’s digital technology flagship and incubator for entrepreneurship with over 2,000 members including over 900 onsite and close to 1,100 offsite start-ups and technology companies. It is managed by Hong Kong Cyberport Management Company Limited, wholly owned by the Hong Kong SAR Government.
With a vision to become Hong Kong’s digital technology hub and stimulate a fresh economic impetus, Cyberport is dedicated to cultivating a dynamic tech environment. This commitment involves nurturing talent, encouraging youth entrepreneurship, aiding startups, fostering industry growth through strategic partnerships with local and international entities, and driving digital transformation across public and private sectors, bridging new and traditional economies.
Professor Sun Dong, the Secretary for Innovation, Technology, and Industry, Hong Kong highlighted Cyberport’s incredible journey and the achievements of its vibrant community. Expressing his delight in commemorating Cyberport’s two-decade-long legacy, he emphasised the institution’s pivotal role as an ICT powerhouse in Hong Kong.
From its humble beginnings to its present stature, Cyberport has emerged as a catalyst for innovation, nurturing over 2,000 technology companies and startups and showcasing an exponential growth rate over the past five years.
Cyberport’s community has attracted a staggering US$38 billion of investment, marking its significance as an ICT flagship in Hong Kong. The establishment takes pride in its contribution to nurturing numerous innovative ideas and fostering dynamic business ventures, with seven notable unicorns in fintech, smart living, and digital entertainment sectors.
Cyberport excelled at the prestigious Hong Kong ICT Awards, with 25 startups securing 28 accolades, including the esteemed Award of the Year. This achievement showcased the institution’s exceptional calibre and innovation prowess nurtured within its ecosystem.
Acknowledging the pivotal role of startups in Cyberport’s success story, Professor Sun Dong shared how these young enterprises, often starting with a simple idea at a small table, grow in tandem with Cyberport’s support. The institution provides not just financial aid but also a nurturing environment where entrepreneurs can leverage extensive networks, collaborative spaces, and expert guidance to cultivate their ideas into commercial successes.
The graduation of more than 200 startups from the Entrepreneurship Programme stood as a testament to Cyberport’s commitment to fostering entrepreneurial talent. This initiative empowers startups to translate their ideas into tangible commercial solutions and market breakthroughs, laying the foundation for their future success.
Looking ahead, Professor Sun Dong outlined Cyberport’s exciting plans, including the upcoming expansion block slated for completion in two years, aimed at providing additional space for the community’s development. He also highlighted Cyberport’s initiative to establish the Artificial Intelligence Supercomputing Centre, a pioneering endeavour set to commence in 2024, envisioned to be a pioneering and substantial facility in Hong Kong.
Cyberport’s extraordinary journey showcases significant achievements while charting a promising future, embodying the core values of innovation, collaboration, and collective growth.
Professor Sun expressed gratitude on behalf of the Government, acknowledging their hard work and contributions to the tech ecosystem emphasising the importance of collective participation for a better future.
The vibrant success of events like the Cyberport Venture Capital Forum 2023 resonates with Cyberport’s commitment to fostering innovation and collaboration, further cementing its role as a catalyst for technological advancement and entrepreneurial growth in Hong Kong.
The Cyberport Venture Capital Forum (CVCF) 2023 saw a turnout of over 2,500 participants during its two-day hybrid event. Themed “Venture Forward: Game Changing through Innovation,” the forum convened 80 global visionary venture experts, entrepreneurial pioneers, and influential thinkers. With more than 120,000 page views and over 300 fundraising meetings facilitated, it solidified its position as a pivotal platform fostering networking and collaborative opportunities.
In a significant stride towards technological innovation and sustainable development, the Department of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR) and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) have joined forces to revolutionise India’s construction and wastewater treatment sectors.
This pioneering collaboration under the “Access to Knowledge for Technology Development and Dissemination (A2K+) Studies” Scheme of DSIR is aimed at aligning with India’s Smart Cities Mission and its ambitious commitment to achieving net-zero emissions by 2070.
DSIR’s allocation of two crucial research studies to TERI signifies a pivotal step in bridging the informational gap on advanced building materials, designs for energy efficiency, and the assessment of membrane-based sewage wastewater treatment systems for reuse and recycling.
A significant milestone in this partnership was marked by a high-profile Stakeholder Consultant Meeting held at the prestigious India Habitat Center in New Delhi. Attended by key decision-makers, esteemed experts from academia, industry leaders, and policymakers, this event became a platform for insightful discussions and collaborations.
Dr Sujata Chaklanobis, Scientist ‘G’ and Head of A2K+ Studies at DSIR, emphasised the importance of promoting industrial research for indigenous technology development, utilisation, and transfer in her address. Her words underscored the crucial role of research and innovation in fostering sustainable technological advancements.
Mr Sanjay Seth, Senior Director of TERI’s Sustainable Infrastructure Programme highlighted India’s commitment to carbon neutrality by 2070. He stressed the imperative integration of cutting-edge technologies and innovative designs in buildings to significantly reduce energy consumption, a key step towards a sustainable, low-carbon future.
The first session of the consultation centred on leveraging emerging technologies and innovative solutions for advanced building design to enhance energy efficiency. Experts from various domains provided insightful suggestions and information, fostering dialogue on energy-efficient building designs and sustainable construction practices.
The second session delved into the current status and prospects of membrane technologies in India for sewage treatment. Insights from academia, including professors from prestigious institutions, shed light on research gaps and opportunities for commercialisation in the domain of membrane-based technologies.
Industry experts also provided valuable perspectives on the current membrane market, innovations, and opportunities, creating a comprehensive understanding of the landscape and paving the way for future developments.
The amalgamation of insights from academia, industry, and end-users enriched the discussions, providing a roadmap for future innovation and development in these critical sectors. The event culminated with a commitment from both DSIR and TERI to embark on an innovation journey, heralding a sustainable and resilient future for India.
The DSIR-TERI collaborative consultation stands as a beacon of transformative progress in advancing sustainable building practices and sewage treatment technologies. It underscores the power of partnership in driving technological evolution for a more sustainable tomorrow.
India’s ambitions intertwine technological progress with a steadffast commitment to sustainability, envisioning a future where innovation not only drives economic growth but also champions environmental stewardship.
Through strategic initiatives and cooperation, India aims to leverage cutting-edge technologies to address pressing global challenges, ensuring a harmonious balance between technological advancement, environmental preservation, and societal well-being.
NITI Aayog, in collaboration with CSIRO, Australia’s national science agency, initiated the India Australia Rapid Innovation and Startup Expansion (RISE) Accelerator under the Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) to bolster circular economy startups from both countries, fostering innovation and entrepreneurship.
The Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IIT-Kanpur) and the African-Asian Rural Development Organisation (AARDO) jointly organised an international training programme, focused on exploring the application of nanotechnology in promoting plant growth and crop protection for sustainable agriculture.
According to an IIT-Kanpur statement, the programme served as a forum for experts from diverse fields to discuss and deliberate on solutions to meet the urgent global challenge of achieving food security and promoting sustainability in agriculture.
The Indonesian government actively strives to implement thematic Bureaucratic Reform (RB) directly addressing societal issues. Minister of State Apparatus Empowerment and Bureaucratic Reform (PANRB) Abdullah Azwar Anas emphasised that innovation is one way to realise impactful bureaucracy.
To create impactful bureaucracy through innovation, the PANRB Ministry, which oversees public services, encourages local governments to replicate innovations through the Public Service Innovation Replication Forum (FRIPP). This is done to expand the reach of inventions and make them an integral part of the Bureaucratic Reform effort. The PANRB Ministry, as the overseer of public services, pays special attention to the steps local governments take in implementing innovations in public service delivery.
The Public Service Innovation Replication Forum (FRIPP) is a platform for local governments to share and discuss their experiences adopting specific innovations. By sharing best practices and learnings, local governments can gain valuable insights to enhance the quality of public services at the local level.
Furthermore, Abdullah Azwar Anas emphasised that inter-government collaboration is critical to building an innovative and positively impactful bureaucracy. “Through FRIPP, we encourage local governments to inspire and adopt innovations that have proven to provide real benefits to the community,” said Minister Abdullah Azwar Anas.
As previously reported by OpenGov Asia, the PANRB Ministry, along with the Ministry of Home Affairs and the National Administrative Agency (LAN), successfully launched the National Public Service Innovation Network (JIPPNas) website as a knowledge management system and the national database for public service innovations.
JIPPNas represents a concrete step in building an innovation ecosystem at the national level. This platform allows local governments to share ideas, projects, and innovative solutions in delivering public services. With this platform, other local governments can easily access and adopt innovations, accelerating the spread of best practices.
“Therefore, the presence of JIPPNas is expected to be an effort to grow new public service models through collaboration to achieve the future government,” said Minister Abdullah Azwar Anas.
In the discourse of Future Government, Minister Abdullah Azwar Anas outlined four main focus areas of the Thematic Bureaucratic Reform, which serve as the foundation for ambitious goals: poverty alleviation, increased investment, digitisation of government administration, and accelerating the current President’s priorities. Emphasis on these areas is crucial to ensuring that the bureaucracy is an effective and efficient driving force in realising the government’s vision and mission.
Minister Anas stressed the importance of a prime bureaucratic condition as a foundation to achieve the desired goals. Like a machine that must be well-maintained, the bureaucracy is directed to be able to drive the “vehicle” of the government towards the desired direction. Thus, the success of implementing the Thematic Bureaucratic Reform involves not only structural transformation but also upholding the quality and readiness of the bureaucracy as the primary driver of development.
Addressing Future Governance or Governance 5.0, Minister Anas detailed a significant paradigm shift. The “government regulating society” transitions to “Government working together with society,” or more precisely, considering society as a partner. This concept marks an evolution in how the government interacts with society, creating closer and more inclusive collaboration.
The importance of support from strategic partners such as Indonesia Infrastructure Project Governance (IIPG) is also highlighted. As a supporter of public governance reform, IIPG significantly contributes to maintaining synergy and harmonisation of roles across multi-sectors, both from the private and public sectors. This synergy is crucial in maintaining optimal performance and achieving public governance reform goals.
In line with the paradigm shift and focus on reform, these steps mark the government’s severe efforts to build a foundation for an adaptive, responsive, and actively engaged Future Government. Thematic Bureaucratic Reform is not just about structural transformation but also an effort to create a governance ecosystem capable of meeting the challenges and demands of the times effectively and competitively.
The 21st century is frequently called the age of Artificial Intelligence (AI), prompting questions about its societal implications. It actively transforms numerous processes across various domains, and research ethics (RE) is no exception. Multiple challenges, encompassing accountability, privacy, and openness, are emerging.
Research Ethics Boards (REBs) have been instituted to guarantee adherence to ethical standards throughout research. This scoping review seeks to illuminate the challenges posed by AI in research ethics and assess the preparedness of REBs in evaluating these challenges. Ethical guidelines and standards for AI development and deployment are essential to address these concerns.
To sustain this awareness, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a part of the Department of Energy, has joined the Trillion Parameter Consortium (TPC), a global collaboration of scientists, researchers, and industry professionals. The consortium aimed to address the challenges of building large-scale artificial intelligence (AI) systems and advancing trustworthy and reliable AI for scientific discovery.
ORNL’s collaboration with TPC aligns seamlessly with its commitment to developing secure, reliable, and energy-efficient AI, complementing the consortium’s emphasis on responsible AI. With over 300 researchers utilising AI to address Department of Energy challenges and hosting the world’s most powerful supercomputer, Frontier, ORNL is well-equipped to significantly contribute to the consortium’s objectives.
Leveraging its AI research and extensive resources, the laboratory will be crucial in addressing challenges such as constructing large-scale generative AI models for scientific and engineering problems. Specific tasks include creating scalable model architectures, implementing effective training strategies, organising and curating data for model training, optimising AI libraries for exascale computing platforms, and evaluating progress in scientific task learning, reliability, and trust.
TPC strives to build an open community of researchers developing advanced large-scale generative AI models for scientific and engineering progress. The consortium plans to voluntarily initiate, manage, and coordinate projects to prevent redundancy and enhance impact. Additionally, TPC seeks to establish a global network of resources and expertise to support the next generation of AI, uniting researchers focused on large-scale AI applications in science and engineering.
Prasanna Balaprakash, ORNL R&D staff scientist and director of the lab’s AI Initiative, said, “ORNL envisions being a critical resource for the consortium and is committed to ensuring the future of AI across the scientific spectrum.”
Further, as an international organisation that supports education, science, and culture, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has established ten principles of AI ethics regarding scientific research.
- Beneficence: AI systems should be designed to promote the well-being of individuals, communities, and the environment.
- Non-maleficence: AI systems should avoid causing harm to individuals, communities, and the environment.
- Autonomy: Individuals should have the right to control their data and to make their own decisions about how AI systems are used.
- Justice: AI systems should be designed to be fair, equitable, and inclusive.
- Transparency: AI systems’ design, operation, and outcomes should be transparent and explainable.
- Accountability: There should be clear lines of responsibility for developing, deploying, and using AI systems.
- Privacy: The privacy of individuals should be protected when data is collected, processed, and used by AI systems.
- Data security: Data used by AI systems should be secure and protected from unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction.
- Human oversight: AI systems should be subject to human management and control.
- Social and environmental compatibility: AI systems should be designed to be compatible with social and ecological values.
Since 1979, ORNL’s AI research has gained a portfolio with the launch of the Oak Ridge Applied Artificial Intelligence Project to ensure the alignment of UNESCO principles. Today, the AI Initiative focuses on developing secure, trustworthy, and energy-efficient AI across various applications, showcasing the laboratory’s commitment to advancing AI in fields ranging from biology to national security. The collaboration with TPC reinforces ORNL’s dedication to driving breakthroughs in large-scale scientific AI, aligning with the world agenda in implementing AI ethics.
The Chief Dental Officer of the Ministry of Health (MOH), Associate Prof Chng Chai Kiat highlighted their role in fostering collaboration, exploring innovation and propelling oral health into the future. Digitalisation, a key element of this transformation, takes centre stage providing a vibrant space for scientists to delve into technological advancements shaping the future of oral health.
Over the next few days, 60 local and international speakers will unravel cutting-edge technologies, artificial intelligence (AI), digital dentistry, biomaterials, orofacial devices, therapeutics, and more.
Oral diseases, affecting 3.5 billion globally, not only compromise health but also pose a substantial economic burden. In Singapore, the 2019/2020 National Adult Oral Health Survey revealed high prevalence rates, emphasising the need for effective strategies.
Assoc Prof Chng underlined the significance of oral health surveillance studies, crucial for policymaking and health system planning, while research becomes a driver for innovation in delivering quality oral care.
Population health takes precedence, aligning with Singapore’s healthcare reform through the Healthier SG initiative. The ageing population becomes a focal point, prompting the need for preventive care to ensure good oral health. Population oral health studies become instrumental in understanding responses to interventions across generations, contributing to effective policymaking.
A notable endeavour is the SG70 cohort study, “Towards Healthy Longevity,” integrating oral health research into mainstream public health initiatives. Led by the National University of Singapore, it examines the effects of biological, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors on healthy ageing. A representative sample of 3,000 Singaporeans aged 70 and older will be followed for the next 10 to 15 years.
Digital dentistry solutions take a leap forward with the ongoing development of a clinically integrated workflow to produce removable partial dentures efficiently. Spearheaded by SingHealth-Duke NUS Medical School, this research proposal employs 3D dental prosthesis printing, biomaterials, and regenerative dentistry, catering to the oral needs of an ageing population.
Industry collaboration has become integral, and a noteworthy example is the development of an antiseptic mouth rinse with anti-viral properties. Originating during the COVID-19 pandemic, the study by the National Dental Centre Singapore has successfully partnered with a homegrown oral care brand, showcasing a synergy between oral health research expertise and industry knowledge.
Digital dentistry solutions have revolutionised dental practices by offering precision, efficiency, and enhanced patient experiences. Utilising advanced technologies such as intraoral scanners and CAD/CAM systems, these solutions ensure precise measurements and accurate diagnoses.
Digital workflows streamline traditional processes, significantly reducing chair time and enabling same-day restorations. This benefits practitioners in terms of time efficiency and enhances the overall patient experience, as digital impressions replace traditional materials, providing a more comfortable and less intrusive procedure.
Customisation and aesthetics are paramount in modern dentistry, and digital tools like CAD/CAM systems allow for the creation of highly customised dental prosthetics tailored to individual patient anatomy. The precise colour-matching capabilities of digital technologies contribute to restorations that closely resemble natural teeth, achieving superior aesthetic outcomes.
Additionally, improved communication between dental professionals is facilitated through digital platforms, enabling seamless collaboration on multidisciplinary cases. The ease of sharing digital records with laboratories, specialists, and other team members fosters better coordination in delivering comprehensive patient care.
Beyond the immediate benefits, digital dentistry offers long-term advantages such as cost-effectiveness, as reduced material costs and increased efficiency offset initial investments.
The accessibility and secure storage of digital patient records contribute to better continuity of care, while ongoing technological advancements, including the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and 3D printing, ensure that dental practices remain at the forefront of emerging trends.
Hence, digital dentistry has become an essential component of modern dental care, providing practitioners with tools to deliver high-quality, patient-centred services in a technologically advanced environment.
Union Minister of State for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship and Electronics & IT, Rajeev Chandrasekhar, spoke at two influential tech events: the Indian Express Digifraud & Safety Summit 2023 and YourStory Techsparks’23. His engagements centred around India’s technological advancements, regulatory policies, and the nation’s promising future in the global tech landscape.
At these tech summits, Minister Rajeev Chandrasekhar outlined India’s ambitious technological trajectory, reinforcing the government’s dedication to fostering innovation, ensuring a safe digital environment, and harnessing the transformative power of technology for the nation’s progress.
Minister Rajeev Chandrasekhar articulated India’s journey in artificial intelligence (AI) and emphasised the government’s commitment to fostering innovation and the startup ecosystem. He expressed the government’s profound interest in further boosting India’s burgeoning startup landscape.
Minister Rajeev Chandrasekhar noted India’s transition from an unrestricted, eternally optimistic view of technology and the internet to a more nuanced approach. He highlighted the government’s aim to strike a balance between fostering innovation and growth while guaranteeing distinct rights for digital citizens.
The Minister emphasised the evolution from the phase of transforming India to the concept of ‘New India’ and now envisions witnessing the emergence of ‘Viksit Bharat’. He expanded on India’s transformation which resonated with the Prime Minister’s vision to raise India to a developed nation status, aiming to elevate the nation to the position of the world’s third-largest economy.
Highlighting the government’s initiatives, Minister Chandrasekhar stated, “Our focus is on startups, innovation, and funding, creating a computing infrastructure. In January, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi agreed to establish a significant amount of GPU capacity in India for startups to access and bring forth their innovation and foundational models.”
He advocated for decentralising the startup landscape, encouraging the emergence of successful ventures from various regions across India. “We want unicorns and successful startups to come from Meerut, Ghaziabad, Kohima, Srinagar, Kottayam, Belgaum, Dharwad, Visakhapatnam, Nagpur, and beyond,” he asserted, confirming the nation’s commitment to fostering innovation in diverse cities.
Addressing concerns about internet regulation and safety, the Minister explained the government’s evolved approach, focusing on ensuring safety and trust for digital citizens while holding platforms accountable. He clarified that “safety and trust are not for the Government; rather, they are initiatives aimed at safeguarding the vast majority of Digital Nagriks”.
Reflecting on his participation in the UK AI Summit, Minister Chandrasekhar underscored India’s commitment to a safe and trusted internet, aligning with the government’s guiding principles since 2021.
“We want the internet to be safe and trusted; it is an article of faith. We also aim for platforms to be legally accountable,” he reiterated.
He highlighted the need to embrace AI’s potential while managing risks, warning against a narrative that diminishes its innovation. The Minister emphasised that avoiding the overshadowing of AI’s benefits by its perceived risks is crucial for the digital economy and the populace.
“We don’t seek to demonise AI; rather, it’s vital to maintain a balance so that the discourse on its risks doesn’t eclipse its potential advantages,” he explains, clarifying India’s approach to artificial intelligence.
OpenGov Asia provided coverage of India’s expanding global influence, highlighting the country’s leadership roles across diverse international platforms. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has introduced the Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR) and a Social Impact Fund (SIF). The GDPIR will be used for sharing information and best practices and the SIF is designed to advance Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI).
He unveiled the schemes during the Virtual G20 Leaders’ Summit. Chaired by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), the G20 Digital Economy Working Group (DEWG) has played a key role in progressing the global DPI agenda.