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Indonesia’s Approach to Artificial Intelligence Governance

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The Government of the Republic of Indonesia continues to adopt the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology as part of its efforts to enhance competitiveness and efficiency across various sectors. Deputy Minister of Communication and Information Technology, Nezar Patria, has emphasised that the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology has adjusted the pace of AI usage by referring to regulations or draft regulations applied in developed countries.

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These steps are aimed at ensuring that the implementation of AI technology in Indonesia not only follows international standards but also supports sustainable local innovation. “We always monitor the development of AI regulations worldwide. For example, in the United States, President Joe Biden issued an Executive Order on the regulation of AI,” he explained.

In light of this, Deputy Minister Nezar Patria said that Indonesia has identified four countries as benchmarks in the development of AI governance in Indonesia. The United States is one of the reference countries with the implementation of the Executive Order on the Safe, Secure, and Trustworthy Development and Use of AI in 2023. The measures taken by the United States in AI regulation serve as inspiration for Indonesia to develop a similar framework to ensure safe, reliable, and responsible development and use of AI.

In addition to the United States, the European Union also serves as an important reference for Indonesia through the European Union AI Act. This EU initiative emphasises the importance of comprehensive regulations to govern the development and use of AI in line with the values and principles desired by the European community.

China also serves as a reference country for the development of AI governance in Indonesia through the Interim Measures for the Management of Generative AI Services. China’s measures in regulating generative AI services provide insights for Indonesia in developing regulations that consider the security and ethics aspects of using generative AI technology.

Finally, Brazil is also a country that is used as a reference for the development of AI governance in Indonesia through the draft regulation of AI Bill No.2238 on the use of AI. Brazil’s steps in preparing AI regulations demonstrate its commitment to regulating the development and use of AI for the benefit of society and the country.

Deputy Minister Nezar Patria explained that Indonesia has issued Minister of Communication and Information Technology Circular Letter No. 9 of 2023 on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence, which is a soft regulation but has sufficient legal force to serve as an initial guide for the AI development ecosystem in Indonesia. This regulation aims to ensure that the development and use of AI in Indonesia adhere to the established ethical values.

In the context of AI development implementation, developed and developing countries have two main approaches, namely Principle-Based and Rule-Based. The Principle-Based approach, as adopted by the European Union, emphasises the importance of compliance with established principles and ethical values without focusing too much on the development process. On the other hand, the Rule-Based approach, which the United States and China more commonly use, emphasises the regulation of AI development processes.

Nezar Patria believes that soft regulations such as the AI Ethics Circular, supported by references from developed countries, can help reduce the risk of AI misuse, especially in the context of the potential negative impacts of Generative AI use, such as discrimination, hallucination and the spread of misinformation and disinformation.

Recognising the importance of this issue, Nezar Patria cited a report released in January 2024, stating that AI-generated misinformation and Disinformation are among the top five issues most feared by around 1,400 CEOs worldwide. Therefore, Nezar Patria emphasises the importance of AI governance in avoiding disinformation and misinformation and ensuring that the development and use of AI in Indonesia are conducted ethically and responsibly.


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