A team from the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Hong Kong (HKU) has developed a novel e-inspection 2.0 system with an in-house developed mobile application (APP) “e-inStar”, which is used to monitor the manufacturing and cross-border delivery of student residence modules constructed in the Mainland during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The new system has adopted cutting-edge digital technologies including blockchain, building information modelling (BIM), Internet Of Things (IoT), and geographical information system (GIS), and is demonstrated to be an effective and reliable tool for real-time offshore monitoring and inspection of building works.
The study was led by Professor Wilson Lu of the Department of Real Estate and Construction alongside Dr Frank Xue from the same Department, Professor Anthony Yeh from the Department of Urban Planning and Design, and Ir Mr KL Tam, Director of Estates.
The research findings have been published in the Journal of Management in Engineering, an academic journal of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Modular Integrated Construction (MiC) was first mentioned in the HKSAR Chief Executive’s 2017 Policy Address to expedite the building process to increase supplies.
The HKU Wong Chuk Hang Student Residence is a pilot project built with the MiC technology. The two 17-floor tower buildings on top of a three-story podium structure will provide 1,224 student hall places. The project is scheduled to be completed by the second quarter of 2023. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, qualified inspectors were dispatched across the border for inspection, involving a lot of manpower and onerous paperwork.
The current e-inspection 1.0 system used by the industry adopts some digital means, which allow the easing of some paperwork, such as uploading of inspection photos and documents for filing and records, but inspectors’ physical presence onsite remains necessary.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, infectious control measures such as social distancing and border control measures have made sending authorised persons from Hong Kong to Mainland factories for onsite inspections extremely difficult.
The new e-inspection 2.0 system consists of a mobile application called e-inStar which encodes the standardised inspection processes of MiC and enables inspection works in an offshore factory. The detailed operations are as follows:
- The contractor generates a list of inspection tasks for a specific project.
- Different stakeholders (e.g., registered structure engineer, authorised person) register on the platform and state their role types.
- A two-factor authentication (2FA) (i.e., password and fingerprint) will confirm the identity of the inspectors.
- When a construction task is completed, the contractor checks the target objects regarding the check items and records the corresponding data (i.e., inspection results and photos)
- At hold points, the client representative and/or registered structural engineer, authorised person and building service inspector ask the contractor’s inspectors to recheck target objects under their real-time video supervision.
- The recheck results are compared with the record, and if they are the same and in compliance, the client representative and/or registered structural engineer, authorised person, and building service inspector can digitally sign the record in the distributed blockchain network.
- If any inconsistency or noncompliance is spotted, a request for re-inspection will be sent to the contractor. All records on procedures, being dispersed and stored in the blockchain network, are traceable.
- The signed record is converted into a legally effective document and stored in a distributed blockchain network. All records are thus immutable and safeguarded in the blockchain network.
Also, IoTs are utilised to collect temperature, humidity, vibration, and location information; GIS supports real-time proof of location, while BIM is used for better information management and presentation.
The core of the e-inspection 2.0 system is the blockchain technology which can ensure the accountability, immutability, and traceability of all the inspection information collected from the APP, IoTs, and GIS.
The team is developing and researching BIM and blockchain, effectively integrating and managing all kinds of information such as design, construction, and operation for high-end technology applications.
Professor Anthony Yeh, a GIS expert, stated that GPS technology can provide a certificate of origin and real-time proof of location (PoL). Managers can view the real-time location of the module at any time, with accurate spatiotemporal data for real-time management of materials in construction projects, thereby improving work efficiency.
His team has carried out pioneer research and development of indoor and outdoor navigation systems and has generated many patents. The application programme and smart address system developed by Professor Yeh’s team have been applied in this project for logistics monitoring. The project was supported by the Logistics and Supply Chain MultiTech R&D Centre established under the Innovation and Technology Fund.
Future autonomous vehicles and industrial cameras may have a human-like vision, as a result of a recent advance by scientists from Hong Kong and South Korea. Researchers at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and Yonsei University in Seoul have developed vision sensors that emulate and even surpass the human retina’s ability to adapt to various lighting levels.
The new sensors will greatly improve machine vision systems used for visual analysis and identification tasks, according to Dr CHAI Yang, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Physics, and Assistant Dean (Research), Faculty of Applied Science and Textiles, PolyU, who led the research.
Machine vision systems are cameras and computers that capture and process images for tasks such as facial recognition. They need to be able to “see” objects in a wide range of lighting conditions, which demands intricate circuitry and complex algorithms. Systems like there are rarely efficient enough to process a large volume of visual information in real-time – unlike the human brain.
The new bioinspired sensors developed by the research team may offer a solution via the direct adaptation of a variety of light intensities by the sensors, instead of relying on backend computation. The human eye adapts to different levels of illumination, from very dark to very bright and vice versa, which allows us to identify objects accurately under a range of lighting conditions. The new sensors aim to mimic this adaptability.
“The human pupil may help adjust the amount of light entering the eye,” Dr Chai explained, “but the main adaptation to brightness is performed by retina cells.” Natural light intensity spans a large range, 280 dB. Impressively, the new sensors developed by the team have an effective range of up to 199 dB, compared with only 70 dB for conventional silicon-based sensors. The human retina can adapt to environments under sunlight to starlight, with a range of about 160 dB.
The research team achieved this by developing light detectors, called phototransistors, making use of a dual-layer of atomic-level ultrathin molybdenum disulphide, a semiconductor with unique electrical and optical properties. The researchers then introduced “charge trap states” – impurities or imperfections in a solid’s crystalline structure that restrict the movement of charge – to the dual-layer.
These trap states enable the storage of light information, the researchers noted. They dynamically modulate the optoelectronic properties of the device at the pixel level. By controlling the movement of electrons, the trap states enabled the researchers to precisely adjust the amount of electricity conducted by the phototransistors. This in turn allowed them to control the device’s photosensitivity, or its ability to detect light.
Each of the new vision sensors is made up of arrays of such phototransistors. They mimic the rod and cone cells of the human eye, which are respectively responsible for detecting dim and bright light. As a result, the sensors can detect objects in differently lit environments as well as switch between, and adapt to, varying levels of brightness—with an even greater range than the human eye.
Dr Chai also noted that the sensors reduce hardware complexity and greatly increase the image contrast under different lighting conditions. This, thus, delivers high image recognition efficiency.
These novel bioinspired sensors could usher in the next generation of artificial-vision systems used in autonomous vehicles and manufacturing, as well as find exciting new applications in edge computing and the Internet of Things.
RMIT and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe announced a new Digital Energy TestLab that aims to enable students and researchers to simulate intelligent electrical systems for smart cities in a Victorian first.
Harnessing the power of data analytics, Internet of Things (IoT), simulation and the same hardware and software used by new generation national networks, the future energy workforce can evaluate and model real-world scenarios and optimise energy systems for smart cities, including national and local energy grids.
It builds on a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) RMIT, the German industrial manufacturing company and another German multinational industrial control and automation company signed in 2021 to drive industry and workforce transformation.
The Deputy Vice-Chancellor of RMIT’s STEM College and Vice President of Digital Innovation welcomed the latest strategic initiative, saying it opened new education and research pathways to one of the nation’s most critical topics – the future of energy for smarter and more sustainable cities.
He noted that energy impacts every industry and every home in Australia. The region’s cities need smarter energy grids and systems that support our sustainable development agenda. He added that with a growing mix of energy types coming into the market, the focus is on developing new technological solutions and new workforces to help progress the region’s economy through Industry 4.0 towards a more sustainable future.
By working in interdisciplinary teams engaged with industry, RMIT’s students and researchers are gaining valuable soft skills in teamwork, systems thinking and problem-solving, while using the latest in digital technology that will set them up for life and work.
The Digital Energy TestLab features two modelling options for students: the national grid simulation that mimics complex energy scenarios using the Australian Energy Market Operator’s (AEMO’s) data and a microgrid system that mimics more complex energy flows from multiple traditional and renewable sources of diverse sizes.
It is the latest addition in a network of TestLabs with universities across Australia, designed to build capability across a range of critical areas from energy and agribusiness to advanced manufacturing.
The Chairman and CEO of the Australian branch of the partnering company stated that Australia’s progress towards net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 hinged on using innovative technologies and people who could harness them to deliver innovative solutions.
He said he was proud to continue to work with RMIT and other Australian key educators to help drive better outcomes for the nation on critical topics such as digitalisation and energy.
He added that through the contribution of the tech firm’s technology in the TestLab, students will now have firsthand experience working on data that can help maintain grid stability in the event of situations such as natural disasters and outages.
Students also can understand the dynamics and impact of various generation sources such as wind and solar power, storage, electric vehicle charging and other infrastructure.
The CEO of Engineers Australia stated that “engineering was at the heart of solving society’s greatest challenges, including the future of energy.” She added that now Australian engineers will have access to the best tools and, therefore, will be able to develop the real-world skills necessary to guide the region through the journey to a more dependable, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable energy future.
The Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) recently inked a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with one of India’s largest telecom operators to help simplify the deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) solutions and foster interoperability among devices and applications as per oneM2M (machine to machine) architecture.
IoT adoption has become critical in any organisation’s digital transformation journey. However, in the current deployments, certain operational challenges prevent businesses from taping into the technology’s true potential. Some issues include device network compatibility, over-the-air firmware upgrades, remote device configuration, security vulnerabilities, and implementation in siloes with proprietary protocols.
To address these challenges, C-DOT and the telecom operator have agreed to evaluate applications and devices from various solution providers against oneM2M specifications and offer joint certificates. A government official said that the partnership is an opportunity to “see the oneM2M specifications in action” in a diverse set of sectors and applications, from smart energy to connected cars. C-DOT’s indigenously-developed oneM2M-based Common Services Platform (CCSP) is expected to benefit the IoT industry. The collaboration presents opportunities for device and application providers to deploy their solutions in telecom operators’ networks. The platform will enable application providers to use a robust middleware framework with all necessary underlying common services to deploy a secure oneM2M-compliant solution.
C-DOT is a leading telecommunications research and development organisation that runs under the Ministry of Communications. It carries out advanced research activities in optical communication, wireless technologies, switching and routing, IoT/M2M, artificial intelligence, and advanced security solutions, among others.
Over the years, the automotive, energy, healthcare, smart cities, and logistics industries have ramped up IoT investments. A recent survey showed that the IoT market in India could touch US$ 9.28 billion by 2025, up from US$ 4.98 billion in 2020.
Government agencies are also working together to foster the IoT ecosystem in the country. For instance, earlier this month, C-DOT signed an MoU with the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) to collaborate in areas of telecommunications and information communication technologies (ICT), activities in 4G/5G services, broadband, IoT/M2M, packet core, and computing. As OpenGov Asia reported, the two sides also planned to sign Specific Project Agreements as and when required to enumerate the specific roles and responsibilities.
C-DOT is keen on aligning its indigenous R&D endeavours with C-DAC’s to meet the overarching objectives of national development, an official had stated. Both C-DOT and C-DAC are leaders in their respective areas and the MoU can foster strong cooperation and develop state-of-the-art technologies. The agreement will strengthen and secure national networks, boost seamless connectivity, and deploy advanced tech-based applications to make India self-reliant.
C-DAC is a premier institute for the design, development, and deployment of electronic and ICT technologies and applications for socio-economic advancement. It aims to expand the frontiers of ICT in the country, and evolve technology solutions, architectures, systems, and standards for India-specific problems. It rapidly and effectively spreads digital knowledge by overcoming language barriers through cutting-edge technologies, sharing IT experience and expertise, fostering digital inclusion, and utilising the intellectual property generated by converting it into business opportunities.
It takes a lot to make a city as livable as possible. Taichung City’s recent initiative showed exemplary leadership as they were able to coordinate and execute a plan toward a cleaner city in terms of air quality using emerging technology.
As reported by the Environmental Protection Bureau, the city mayor, Mayor Lu Shiow-yen, launched her “Blue Sky White Cloud Action Plan” after being elected. The initiative was formed to improve the city’s air quality; the plan itself is comprehensive putting emphasis on utilising “open and transparent” data. The mayor has even demanded that officials in her air-pollution quarterly meetings should strive to break the technical bottleneck associated with the monitoring of fire hazard points.
Now, her action plan is paying huge dividends. The initiative has been internationally recognised for its efficiency and, perhaps most importantly, it has helped the people of Taichung achieve a cleaner city. The initiative demonstrated an exemplary model for collaboration and cooperation, no easy feat given the number of departments and bureaus involved.
At the core of the initiative is digitalisation. It uses the existing network of air quality sensors that has been enhanced by the Internet of Things (IoT) so multiple applications are brought to play. The setup itself enables the city administration to view real-time air quality data. That means they can track pollution sources and pinpoint major pollution incidents as they happen. This is especially useful in industrial zones where the stakes could be higher.
The Environmental Protection Bureau detailed that the city has an extensive network of sensors numbering up to 1,4411. That is a lot higher than most cities in the world. Plus, they’ve optimised these sensors toward better monitoring of the air quality network.
The network has been connected to key segments of the city. With the IoT integration, the initiative has successfully adopted the case handling technology done by the city’s police department. That should enable them to deploy smart enforcement of the city’s air quality monitoring.
In the previous year, the initiative provided needed blow-by-blow data on the real-time status of fire incidents. Plus, it was able to analyse in detail how such fire incidents affect the overall picture of the air quality. Furthermore, the initiative stepped up the drive against air pollution. Last year, it investigated over 30 cases of air pollution. Due to its remarkable results, the “Air Quality Sensor IoT” was recognised as one of the most influential initiatives in the world.
Recently, Taichung City got the “Smart 50 Awards”, an annual American award for the best cities in the world in terms of technology and innovation. Taichung is the only East Asian city to get awarded in the international competition. Taiwan has joined hands with other countries to make the internet safer and more open for collaboration so technology can be shared by everyone.
Local industries have started to embrace circular design for a circular economy. One of its biggest semiconductor manufacturers is leading the way with its zero-waste manufacturing facility as reported on OpenGov Asia.
Indeed, deploying the best technology can offer for society’s ageing population is an ideal proposition. That is what the Medical Centre of National Cheng Kung University (NKCU) wants to achieve. This year, it is set to build its first geriatrics hospital, which will introduce smart technology to create a “hospital without walls”. With the help of the private sector, it will use the latest in Information Communication Technology to care for seniors. At the top of the list is Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT).
To note, Taiwan’s National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine is the country’s leading research centre for medical research which includes enterovirus, dengue fever, oncovirus, geriatric medicine and neurology. Above and beyond, however, the institution emphasises medical professionalism and humanism in its medical training.
The proposed smart geriatric hospital is highly customer-centric. Its goal is to co-develop patient-centred medical and healthcare services. Capacity-wise, the hospital will have 440 beds, research and education facilities, and space for collaborative research with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Indeed, NCKU is gathering the resources necessary to push the envelope with regards to new smart geriatric healthcare for Taiwan and the world.
In this planned smart hospital, NCKU Medical Centre is developing a smart AI companion. The development team with the immediate goal of improving the quality of human life is composed of medical researchers from different disciplines. It shall be led by Professor Jung-Hsien Chiang of the AI Biomedical Research Centre in collaboration with a leading tech company.
Their team is focused on designing and developing an AI companion robot for use with family doctor care teams, patients with diabetes and the elderly. The robot was first conceptualised for use with children but, by using deep learning, adding events and seasonal information to the inference procedure, the team has successfully broadened the scope of applications in order to achieve a more user-friendly environment for elderly care users as well.
Added to that, NKCU College of Medicine is integrating 3D technology to develop better surgeons. Specifically, they are employing mixed and virtual reality for the purpose of setting up the Surgical Skills Development Centre. The centre is intended to close the gap between traditional teaching, and clinical applications and curriculum. A gross anatomy room that combines basic and clinical medical science education will be located next to the centre. By teaching students how to meticulously operate delicate craniotomy drills, they will simultaneously learn how to deal with cadavers using precision technology.
Moreover, NKCU is going beyond traditional healthcare. As Taiwan has been officially named an aged society in 2018, being able to factor fitness for the elderly is crucial for prevention. Again, this is where emerging technology can play its part.
With the advent of emerging smart technology, advanced diagnostic technology and an ageing society, smart healthcare will be the most important developing direction for the world in the future. NCKU Medical Device Innovation Center came up health-promoting fitness system for seniors. It includes:
- integrated senior fitness assessment
- an intelligent arm ergometer
- an intelligent stationary bike
- a keyless interface
- interactive game guidance
By using big data and AI, the system provides a personalised intelligent fitness prescription for older people. This means that intelligent senior healthcare is no longer out of reach, enabling patients to move towards a happy life in old age.
Great things have been happening to Taiwan, thanks to technology. Considered the semiconductor capital of the world, its chip industry is set to increase with the advent of Driver Assistance Systems (DAS).
Knowing how important ICT emerging technologies are, Taiwan is focusing on expanding its digital capabilities. Recently, the island nation has put up an AI HUB set to make the Pacific nation an artificial intelligence hub for the region, and for the world — as reported on OpenGov Asia.
The Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) and a local start-up announced a collaboration to develop and productise an asset tracking and localisation system that can be adopted for indoor and outdoor applications based on a sensor network that is being powered wirelessly.
Founded and based in Singapore, the start-up provides multi-dimensional Internet-of-Things (IoT) smart solutions. The company has licensed A*STAR’s wirelessly powered localisation system for asset tracking to develop a variety of practical applications.
By merging A*STAR’s research capabilities and expertise in user interface application development with the start-up’s strengths in solutions integration, both parties have jointly developed an asset tracking system that can automatically track the physical location of hospitals’ wheelchairs, which typically range in the hundreds per hospital.
This asset tracking system was tested and later deployed in 150 wheelchairs at Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (KTPH) in April 2021, across common areas including wheelchair parking zones, car park lobbies as well as wheelchair parks outside Specialist Outpatient Clinics. Wireless tags were attached to the wheelchairs and served as beacons; the tags send location information to network devices installed at strategic positions within the hospital.
The data is then presented on a mobile application, and hospital staff such as Patient Service Associates (PSA) can easily monitor and track the location of wheelchairs. They are notified when the number of wheelchairs at designated key areas are running low and need replenishing, as well as which areas they can find excess wheelchairs. Staff productivity has improved and it has also helped ensure that wheelchairs for patients are constantly available.
The application’s intuitive digital dashboard is easy to use and shows, at a glance, which wheelchairs are due for servicing. This further enhances the overall productivity and safety of the hospital’s wheelchairs.
This project was supported with Gap Funding from A*STAR’s Enterprise division, where funding and resources are given to support the translation of research into impactful new products and services that benefit the economy and society and to support the commercialisation of new technologies based on licensed A*STAR technologies. Besides tracking wheelchairs in hospitals, other potential applications of the wirelessly powered localisation system include industrial IoT, smart buildings, and environmental monitoring.
The Technology Behind the Wirelessly Powered Localisation System for Asset Tracking
The asset tracking system includes a Radio Frequency (RF) energy-harvesting interface to recharge the battery, a power management unit, and ZigBee System-on-a-Chip (SoC) to support data connectivity.
A*STAR’s Institute of Microelectronics (IME) created a miniaturised antenna solution for Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvesting with higher sensitivity than commercially available solutions. By applying the RF energy harvesting capability to the sensor nodes or end terminals, the system aids to extend the battery lifetime and improving operational efficiency. This is complemented by ZigBee networking protocols and firmware from A*STAR’s Institute for Infocomm Research (I²R).
The asset tracking system uses this differentiating technology with Zigbee Mesh Topology to provide coarse localisation of over 300 existing wheelchairs on KTPH’s premises, further enhancing the engineering to provide long-range transmission. Since the end-to-end solution relies on both hardware and software, these capabilities work synergistically for power-efficient operation, providing a wireless-powered solution for asset tracking and monitoring, including predictive maintenance. With this advancement, end-users can expect to power the system for longer and attain greater cost-effectiveness. Such systems are useful for applications where human intervention is limited, such as in chemical plants.
The Executive Director of A*STAR’s IME stated that IME, alongside other A*STAR research entities, works with local SMEs to address industry challenges by leveraging innovative technologies. This wireless-powered sensor technology will aid the adoption of IoT across various sectors such as machine health monitoring in heavy industries, microclimate sensing in agriculture, smart home solutions, and manufacturing plants where limited human access is preferred due to hazardous conditions.
The Founder of the start-up noted that together with A*STAR, supported by KTPH and the interns of Singapore Polytechnic, the company is the first to provide localisation trackers with over-the-air wireless charging. The sensor network we have developed is further extendable to cover all areas in the hospital to achieve active tracking and monitoring of wheelchairs that will improve the productivity and safety of these hospital assets that are used by patients daily. The collaboration with A*STAR has enhanced its service offerings, allowing it to target new market segments and create new opportunities for us to partner with local manufacturers to develop new solutions.
The Chief Operating Officer of KTPH stated that the hospital is always looking for opportunities to improve its patient experience through engineering innovation. A large majority of its patients require wheelchairs to move around KTPH. Wheelchairs are parked at multiple locations for patients’ convenience and will need regular maintenance. Previously, staff may have had to spend more than 30 minutes scouring for ‘lost’ wheelchairs, but now their real-time location is available.
This enables the hospital’s Patient Relations Associates and maintenance colleagues to top up wheelchairs where needed and to bring in any wheelchairs for timely maintenance. The time saved can now be used to care for patients.
Given the success of implementation, this system could be scaled to track other high movement equipment. KTPH is also exploring areas like recording temperature data, monitoring lighting conditions or controlling external devices. By leveraging modern technology to provide innovative solutions, we can improve the efficiency and productivity of our hospital’s overall operations and processes.
To reduce speed-related casualties related to vehicles running red lights, researchers have developed technology to dynamically extend the duration of traffic lights. According to the Federal Highway Administration, traffic signals are prime locations for accidents, with more than 2 million crashes and 3,000 fatalities a year.
Technology developed by Purdue University’s Joint Transportation Research Program and the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) will collect data from wireless transmitters installed in vehicles, calculate the speed and trajectory of oncoming vehicles and communicate that information to the signal, which uses embedded intelligence to adjust the time the light stays green or to change to a yellow light earlier than necessary.
Because the technology is built on the wireless transmission of data rather than sensors embedded in the roadway, the solution requires much less infrastructure investment. The technology has been initially designed for large vehicles and semi-trailers that need more stopping distance and are therefore twice as likely to run a red light.
To reduce crashes, the key idea is to provide dilemma-zone protection. One would think yellow time can be extended; however, drivers tend to adapt to this, resulting in lower probabilities of stopping. The system can extend the green light to ensure that vehicles can clear the intersection; however, when there are multiple vehicles competing for green time, the system will flash the yellow light before the cars enter the dilemma zone.
The wireless devices will be placed in both the traffic lights and in vehicles, many of which are already coming off assembly lines with built-in high-bandwidth, low-latency technologies like 5G broadband, Purdue principal research analyst Howell Li said. Specialised software at the signal controller will tie the components together.
The project was tested on a stretch of highway in Tippecanoe County, Ind. During tests, the system was able to detect vehicles travelling 55 miles per hour, in a six-foot waypoint radius spaced 50 feet apart, with 95% accuracy. Using this data to estimate risk mitigation, researchers concluded dilemma zone incursions at that particular testing site could be reduced by 34%.
In the past, there were only conceptual-use cases involving onboard vehicle communication technology integrating with live traffic signal control. The new technology moves this integration beyond the merely conceptual. This work provides an implemented real-world use case that addresses an important safety concern, among other applications.
As reported by OpenGov Asia, when it comes to the quest for an equitable distribution of services in states and localities as well as diversity and inclusion in their workforces, the specifics of the challenge varies from place to place. But one common theme has emerged: To truly understand the problems that need to be solved, leaders must have the necessary data in hand.
The study of city, county and state data informs leaders not just how taxpayer money is spent, but also how it is raised and how it is invested in neighbourhoods. It also is needed to determine whether government employees, high-level officials, board members and vendors reflect the demographic composition of the entity and are equitably compensated.
One other promising tool was recently introduced through a partnership between the Government Alliance on Race and a software firm that specialises in geographic information system software, location intelligence and mapping. The new social equity analysis tool provides a geospatial mapping approach that can be used to visualise areas of focus, evaluate the community-level impact and guide government decision making. It will enable governments to use an intersectional lens to identify patterns of need and opportunities to enhance equity through an examination of geography, race, ethnicity, disability, gender and other areas of interest.