February 21, 2024

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Machine Learning Model Finds COVID-19 Risks for Cancer Patients

When it comes to whether cancer patient tests positive for COVID-19 is more likely to become hospitalised from the disease, that on certain risk factors, according to a new study by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), who looked to identify cancer-related risks for poor outcomes from COVID-19.

The scientists discovered previously unreported associations between a rare type of cancer — as well as two cancer treatment-related medicines — and an elevated risk of hospitalisation from COVID-19 after analysing one of the largest databases of cancer patients.

There is still a lot of concern about the influence of COVID-19 on the risk of cancer patients. The strength of the dataset, which allowed us to look at this particular sector and was large enough to identify some statistically significant cancer-related and medicine-related viewpoints, was critical to the success of this work. These are potentially actionable items for clinicians to share with their patients in order to raise awareness, increase precautions, or perhaps consider alternative therapies.

The researchers looked at de-identified Electronic Health Record (EHR) data from the UC Health COVID Research Data Set (UC CORDS) on nearly a half-million patients who had COVID-19 testing at all 17 UC-affiliated institutions using a logistical regression approach. The database contains information on patient demographics, comorbidities, lab work, cancer kinds, and various cancer therapies for approximately 50,000 cancer patients, more than 17,000 of whom also tested positive for COVID.

The researchers looked at a variety of factors and disease outcomes, such as hospitalisation, ventilation, and death, and discovered a link between COVID-19 and a specific group of rarer blood cancers, as well as two cancer medications: venetoclax (used to treat leukaemia) and methotrexate (used to treat cancer) (an immune suppressant used in chemotherapy).

The ability to evaluate the potential risk of many different factors with some reasonable confidence that the findings are statistically significant and relevant to a population outside the cohort under study is made possible by having access to such a large database with detailed medical histories for each patient.

Such unexpected results highlight one of the difficulties in using EHRs to model disease: many confounding factors that complicate the research and must be accounted for. More research is needed to better understand and confirm the decreased risk of COVID-19 test positivity in cancer patients.

The research is part of a pilot study, and the researchers are looking for external funding to continue their investigation. To find better ways to treat patients, Ray said the researchers would like to integrate time-varying genetic and imaging data, as well as more complex AI and other techniques. They seek to learn not only about the disease’s mechanisms but also about how socioeconomic factors like money and insurance can influence it.

As reported by OpenGov Asia, creating smarter, more accurate systems requires a hybrid human-machine approach, according to researchers at the University of California, Irvine. In a study published this month in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they present a new mathematical model that can improve performance by combining human and algorithmic predictions and confidence scores.

To test the framework, researchers conducted an image classification experiment in which human participants and computer algorithms worked separately to correctly identify distorted pictures of animals and everyday items—chairs, bottles, bicycles, trucks. The human participants ranked their confidence in the accuracy of each image identification as low, medium or high, while the machine classifier generated a continuous score. The results showed large differences in confidence between humans and AI algorithms across images.

PARTNER

Qlik’s vision is a data-literate world, where everyone can use data and analytics to improve decision-making and solve their most challenging problems. A private company, Qlik offers real-time data integration and analytics solutions, powered by Qlik Cloud, to close the gaps between data, insights and action. By transforming data into Active Intelligence, businesses can drive better decisions, improve revenue and profitability, and optimize customer relationships. Qlik serves more than 38,000 active customers in over 100 countries.

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CTC Global Singapore, a premier end-to-end IT solutions provider, is a fully owned subsidiary of ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corporation (CTC) and ITOCHU Corporation.

Since 1972, CTC has established itself as one of the country’s top IT solutions providers. With 50 years of experience, headed by an experienced management team and staffed by over 200 qualified IT professionals, we support organizations with integrated IT solutions expertise in Autonomous IT, Cyber Security, Digital Transformation, Enterprise Cloud Infrastructure, Workplace Modernization and Professional Services.

Well-known for our strengths in system integration and consultation, CTC Global proves to be the preferred IT outsourcing destination for organizations all over Singapore today.

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Planview has one mission: to build the future of connected work. Our solutions enable organizations to connect the business from ideas to impact, empowering companies to accelerate the achievement of what matters most. Planview’s full spectrum of Portfolio Management and Work Management solutions creates an organizational focus on the strategic outcomes that matter and empowers teams to deliver their best work, no matter how they work. The comprehensive Planview platform and enterprise success model enables customers to deliver innovative, competitive products, services, and customer experiences. Headquartered in Austin, Texas, with locations around the world, Planview has more than 1,300 employees supporting 4,500 customers and 2.6 million users worldwide. For more information, visit www.planview.com.

SUPPORTING ORGANISATION

SIRIM is a premier industrial research and technology organisation in Malaysia, wholly-owned by the Minister​ of Finance Incorporated. With over forty years of experience and expertise, SIRIM is mandated as the machinery for research and technology development, and the national champion of quality. SIRIM has always played a major role in the development of the country’s private sector. By tapping into our expertise and knowledge base, we focus on developing new technologies and improvements in the manufacturing, technology and services sectors. We nurture Small Medium Enterprises (SME) growth with solutions for technology penetration and upgrading, making it an ideal technology partner for SMEs.

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HashiCorp provides infrastructure automation software for multi-cloud environments, enabling enterprises to unlock a common cloud operating model to provision, secure, connect, and run any application on any infrastructure. HashiCorp tools allow organizations to deliver applications faster by helping enterprises transition from manual processes and ITIL practices to self-service automation and DevOps practices. 

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IBM is a leading global hybrid cloud and AI, and business services provider. We help clients in more than 175 countries capitalize on insights from their data, streamline business processes, reduce costs and gain the competitive edge in their industries. Nearly 3,000 government and corporate entities in critical infrastructure areas such as financial services, telecommunications and healthcare rely on IBM’s hybrid cloud platform and Red Hat OpenShift to affect their digital transformations quickly, efficiently and securely. IBM’s breakthrough innovations in AI, quantum computing, industry-specific cloud solutions and business services deliver open and flexible options to our clients. All of this is backed by IBM’s legendary commitment to trust, transparency, responsibility, inclusivity and service.

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