February 29, 2024

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Renewable energy potential mapped in Bali, Indonesia using open source GIS software

Renewable energy potential mapped in Bali

Above image: QGIS Interface with Layers/ Source: ADB

Geographic Information System (GIS)-based decision support systems (DSS) can play a significant role in arriving at the right mix of renewable energy to meet the needs of the respective localities. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) released a paper recently describing the use of such GIS-based DSS in developing a tool that quantifies the potential of five energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal) in a given geographical area, using Bali, Indonesia as a case study.

Free and open source GIS software, QGIS and the Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS), were used to process the data collected by a team composed mainly of staff from the Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM) or the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia, World Resources Institute, and University of Tokyo.

The base topographic data included land cover, digital terrain models, road, river networks collected from the Indonesian government’s Geospatial Information Agency or Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG). The data also covers political boundaries, i.e., province, district, and desa. A desa is the smallest administrative unit for which population and other statistical data are available. The number of households connected to the grid was obtained for each desa from the Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) or State Electricity Corporation.

Data for solar, wind, hydropower and geothermal energy was provided by ESDM. For solar and wind energy, ESDM used one-degree Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) data from the US government’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). A model developed by the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan was used for interpolation, followed by further downscaling to a 5-kilometer (km) resolution. Technical assistance was provided by the National Research Center of the Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia.

With input from the Department of Public Works, Indonesia, ESDM estimated the run-of-river hydropower potential. Data for the geothermal energy technical potential for Bali was extracted from ESDM’s geological agency estimation dataset generated from across the country.

For biomass energy, computerized tabular data on agricultural, plantation and forest production, and biomass residuals were integrated with desa political boundary data.

The data was grouped into four thematic groups: 1) Topography (Road, River, Contour, Digital Elevation Model, Land Cover, Spot Elevation, Settlement, Forest); 2) Administrative (Provincial, City, Municipality, Town, District, Subdistrict, Provincial capital, District capital, Town capital); 3) Demography (Population, Number of households, Number of households connected to grid; and 4) Energy (Solar, Wind, Hydropower, Geothermal, Biomass).

The total estimated technical potential from all the renewable energy sources amounts to 115,372 GWh/year with solar energy contributing to 98% of the total energy yield. This shows that even if 5% of this technical potential can be developed, the projected energy requirement of 4,993 GWh/year in Bali by 2019 can be entirely met. The paper notes that though solar power is abundant in Bali, and the price of solar panels is on a downward trend, large storage would be required if all power demand is to be met by solar energy.

Indonesia-Bali-Asian-Development-bank-energy-mapping-QGIS4

Above image: L- Solar Energy Potential by Desa Boundary ; R- Technical Potential Energy (GWh/year) (GWh = gigawatt-hour)/ Source :ADB

However, without proper policy and market intervention, it would be difficult to harness this potential. The estimated quantified energy mix, along with spatial distribution at desa level can be effectively used for different sizes and types of energy generation planning, specifically for small rooftop or backyard solar or hybrid photovoltaic and mini and micro grids. A geo-enabled DSS would assist decision makers in selecting the appropriate technologies.

Once the potential has been determined, factors such as financial viability, socioeconomic impacts and technological aspects need to be brought into the decision-making process.

The work described in the paper is the first phase of a multiphase effort. The study does not assess the financial viability of the renewable energy sources. Financial feasibility of power generation depends on a variety of factors like amount of resource (this is the only aspect that is covered in this report); quality of resource; financial parameters (feed-in tariff, other incentives, interest rates, expected equity rate of return and others); economies of scale (solar photovoltaic is not as sensitive as wind to project size) and other factors like infrastructure (roads, transmission, and others). An important next step in the project would be to create a consolidated decision support model that incorporates the most important of these factors, if not all.

The GIS-based decision support system tool that was devised for this study can be used for most of the geographic areas in the region. Incorporating financial viability, socioeconomic, and technological aspects would make even more useful for policy and decision makers. Using the results of Bali as a test case, the working paper envisions presenting a tool that can be utilised for similar geographic regions. 

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Qlik’s vision is a data-literate world, where everyone can use data and analytics to improve decision-making and solve their most challenging problems. A private company, Qlik offers real-time data integration and analytics solutions, powered by Qlik Cloud, to close the gaps between data, insights and action. By transforming data into Active Intelligence, businesses can drive better decisions, improve revenue and profitability, and optimize customer relationships. Qlik serves more than 38,000 active customers in over 100 countries.

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CTC Global Singapore, a premier end-to-end IT solutions provider, is a fully owned subsidiary of ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corporation (CTC) and ITOCHU Corporation.

Since 1972, CTC has established itself as one of the country’s top IT solutions providers. With 50 years of experience, headed by an experienced management team and staffed by over 200 qualified IT professionals, we support organizations with integrated IT solutions expertise in Autonomous IT, Cyber Security, Digital Transformation, Enterprise Cloud Infrastructure, Workplace Modernization and Professional Services.

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Planview has one mission: to build the future of connected work. Our solutions enable organizations to connect the business from ideas to impact, empowering companies to accelerate the achievement of what matters most. Planview’s full spectrum of Portfolio Management and Work Management solutions creates an organizational focus on the strategic outcomes that matter and empowers teams to deliver their best work, no matter how they work. The comprehensive Planview platform and enterprise success model enables customers to deliver innovative, competitive products, services, and customer experiences. Headquartered in Austin, Texas, with locations around the world, Planview has more than 1,300 employees supporting 4,500 customers and 2.6 million users worldwide. For more information, visit www.planview.com.

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SIRIM is a premier industrial research and technology organisation in Malaysia, wholly-owned by the Minister​ of Finance Incorporated. With over forty years of experience and expertise, SIRIM is mandated as the machinery for research and technology development, and the national champion of quality. SIRIM has always played a major role in the development of the country’s private sector. By tapping into our expertise and knowledge base, we focus on developing new technologies and improvements in the manufacturing, technology and services sectors. We nurture Small Medium Enterprises (SME) growth with solutions for technology penetration and upgrading, making it an ideal technology partner for SMEs.

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HashiCorp provides infrastructure automation software for multi-cloud environments, enabling enterprises to unlock a common cloud operating model to provision, secure, connect, and run any application on any infrastructure. HashiCorp tools allow organizations to deliver applications faster by helping enterprises transition from manual processes and ITIL practices to self-service automation and DevOps practices. 

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IBM is a leading global hybrid cloud and AI, and business services provider. We help clients in more than 175 countries capitalize on insights from their data, streamline business processes, reduce costs and gain the competitive edge in their industries. Nearly 3,000 government and corporate entities in critical infrastructure areas such as financial services, telecommunications and healthcare rely on IBM’s hybrid cloud platform and Red Hat OpenShift to affect their digital transformations quickly, efficiently and securely. IBM’s breakthrough innovations in AI, quantum computing, industry-specific cloud solutions and business services deliver open and flexible options to our clients. All of this is backed by IBM’s legendary commitment to trust, transparency, responsibility, inclusivity and service.

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