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Biometrics and AI Enhancing Law Enforcement in Indonesia

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Head of the Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Cybersecurity Research (PRKAKS) at the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Anto Satriyo Nugroho, asserted that the current era demands criminal investigations to be conducted with a scientific foundation. In this context, the concept of Scientific Crime Investigation becomes an imperative mandate, pointing towards the need to investigate various criminal activities using methods aligned with scientific principles and applicable laws.

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Anto recognised the significance of incorporating a scientific approach in law enforcement, believing that Scientific Crime Investigation can provide a robust and objective foundation for handling criminal cases. Consequently, decisions and actions taken can be based on scientifically accountable evidence.

In his perspective, implementing Scientific Crime Investigation aligns with the principles of justice and legal certainty. This enhances the quality of investigations and ensures that legal actions taken result from in-depth analysis and are based on verifiable facts. Therefore, he emphasises the importance of compliance with the law and integrity in executing Scientific Crime Investigations.

Anto highlighted that the investigation of criminal activities requires precision and accuracy in compiling evidence. The role of identification strengthens the connection to the investigation. “Now, in Article 14, paragraph 1, letter H, there is the term ‘Identification process,’ which is closely related to artificial intelligence, namely biometric technology,” explained Anto.

Biometric technology is not new in criminal investigations, as several methods, such as voice recognition, fingerprinting, facial recognition, and other biometrics, have been developed. However, Normakristagaluh, a computer specialist junior expert at BRIN, has introduced an identification method using the pattern of blood vessels in the finger.

“These blood vessels cannot be replicated because they are inside the body and do not leave a trace like fingerprints. Moreover, the device used is small and can be used directly,” explained Normakristagaluh in his presentation.

Normakristagaluh further explained that research on the pattern of blood vessels is relatively new, but its development continues both commercially and academically.

“Despite this, research on the pattern of blood vessels has encountered challenges regarding unclear images. This makes identification more difficult. Through this research, we hope to assist in processing images of the blood vessel patterns. One of the methods is using Finger Phantom,” said Normakristagaluh.

In this research, according to Normakristagaluh, artificial fingers have been created to understand the formation of images to recognise blood vessel patterns. “Not only does it help us understand identification better, but it can also become the ground truth,” he clarifies.

Normakristagaluh explained that a parameter can be formed through the phantom finger to determine the ground truth. “When we already have the ground truth, we can try data extraction to be used for recognition,” said Normakristagaluh.

Normakristagaluh added that this research aims to expand options and accuracy in biometric identification in scientific investigations. “Scientific Crime Investigation is a way of applying scientific methods in forensic investigation. It can be described plainly as combining procedural techniques and scientific theory in combating crime and meeting the needs of criminal investigations. One method in this investigation is using authentication methods that utilise biological identity data,” explained Normakristagaluh.

Inspector Eko Wahyu Bintoro, the First Examiner at the National Forensic Centre of the Indonesian National Police, explained that scientific investigations in the police force use several methods, including Artificial Intelligence, deep learning, and big data analytics. “As times evolve, biometric recognition technology is also advancing and requires the use of tools,” said Eko.

He adds that the investigation tools need standardisationNational Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standardisation. Still, the introduction of biometric finger blood vessel patterns can strengthen investigations scientifically. “Biometrics can be implemented in Scientific Crime Investigation and for Preventive Crime in the future,” concluded Eko.


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