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U.S. Uses AI and ML to Study Weather and Thunderstorms

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning are assisting the U.S. Office of Science in analysing sea- and bay-breeze circulations from the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay during the summer months. In southeastern Texas, breezes play an important role in weather and storm development.

These circulations influence the flow of moisture and aerosol particles into the Houston region in conjunction with larger-scale weather systems called synoptic conditions. Thus, moisture and aerosol influence the formation of thunderstorms and the linked rainfall. Understanding how these flows impact clouds and storms is critical for improving weather forecasting and climate modelling techniques.

The correlations between weather system circulations and cloud physics in southeastern Texas are divulged using artificial intelligence advanced algorithms in the study. The results provide essential insights into the region’s variability of these regions’ circulations and allow researchers to isolate the effects of circulations on aspects of the region’s climate, such as storm formation, aerosol impact, and other factors.

These discoveries are assisting researchers in narrowing the focus of their study on the aerosol and cloud life cycle, aerosol-cloud interactions, and air quality during the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility’s Tracking Aerosol Convection Interactions ExpeRiment (TRACER) field campaign in the Houston area in 2021 and 2022.

Moreover, during the summer months (June-September), the researchers exercised Self-Organising Map (SOM), an unsupervised machine learning approach, to classify synoptic regimes in the southeastern Texas region. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, Purdue University, SUNY Geneseo, Stony Brook University, and Cornell University were all represented on the team.

The SOM was used to identify three dominating synoptic regimes. The study spans ten years, with a continuum of transitional phases of 700-hPa geopotential height anomalies from reanalysis data. The principal regimes are as follows:

  1. A pre-trough regime associated with a synoptic trough to the northwest of the region
  2. A post-trough regime connected with the northerly upper-level flow
  3. An anticyclonic regime within the westward reach of the Bermuda High

To investigate the characteristics of cloud and precipitation properties (e.g., fraction, intensity) in different regimes, the team projected data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite and the Next-Generation Weather Radar system onto each SOM node. Due to significant moisture advection, when southeastern Texas is positioned in the southwest quadrant of a high-pressure maritime system, the region experiences increased cloud frequency during the afternoon hours.

A convergence of synoptic southerly flow and sea-breeze circulation frequently characterises this regime. When a high-pressure system passes over southeastern Texas, large-scale subsidence dominates, with weak pressure gradients and moderate precipitable water vapour. This weak synoptic forcing is favourable for forming sea breezes. It is supported by increased onshore flow, the lower surface temperature in the early afternoon, and a sharp increase in radar echo top height.

Singapore used a similar digital transformation strategy. The National Environment Agency (NEA) and the Singapore Land Authority (SLA) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to explore the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data from SLA’s Singapore Satellite Reference Network (SiReNT).

This moves aims to assist the NEA in better monitoring the island’s atmospheric moisture. The partnership’s five-year mission is to help Singapore with weather monitoring by providing additional data and making exploratory studies for weather forecasting easier.

According to the MoU, SiReNT will include MSS’s GNSS station, providing MSS with continuous, near-real-time atmospheric moisture readings for the whole island. This non-conventional moisture data will supplement MSS’s present observation network data and enable study into future uses for weather forecasting by providing higher resolution and more frequent observation data.

Furthermore, the SiReNT technology promotes innovation in various industries, including autonomous driving, logistics and automation in the construction industry, and monitoring of changes in Singapore’s land height and sea level.

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Qlik’s vision is a data-literate world, where everyone can use data and analytics to improve decision-making and solve their most challenging problems. A private company, Qlik offers real-time data integration and analytics solutions, powered by Qlik Cloud, to close the gaps between data, insights and action. By transforming data into Active Intelligence, businesses can drive better decisions, improve revenue and profitability, and optimize customer relationships. Qlik serves more than 38,000 active customers in over 100 countries.

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As a Titanium Black Partner of Dell Technologies, CTC Global Singapore boasts unparalleled access to resources.

Established in 1972, we bring 52 years of experience to the table, solidifying our position as a leading IT solutions provider in Singapore. With over 300 qualified IT professionals, we are dedicated to delivering integrated solutions that empower your organization in key areas such as Automation & AI, Cyber Security, App Modernization & Data Analytics, Enterprise Cloud Infrastructure, Workplace Modernization and Professional Services.

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Planview has one mission: to build the future of connected work. Our solutions enable organizations to connect the business from ideas to impact, empowering companies to accelerate the achievement of what matters most. Planview’s full spectrum of Portfolio Management and Work Management solutions creates an organizational focus on the strategic outcomes that matter and empowers teams to deliver their best work, no matter how they work. The comprehensive Planview platform and enterprise success model enables customers to deliver innovative, competitive products, services, and customer experiences. Headquartered in Austin, Texas, with locations around the world, Planview has more than 1,300 employees supporting 4,500 customers and 2.6 million users worldwide. For more information, visit www.planview.com.

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SIRIM is a premier industrial research and technology organisation in Malaysia, wholly-owned by the Minister​ of Finance Incorporated. With over forty years of experience and expertise, SIRIM is mandated as the machinery for research and technology development, and the national champion of quality. SIRIM has always played a major role in the development of the country’s private sector. By tapping into our expertise and knowledge base, we focus on developing new technologies and improvements in the manufacturing, technology and services sectors. We nurture Small Medium Enterprises (SME) growth with solutions for technology penetration and upgrading, making it an ideal technology partner for SMEs.

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HashiCorp provides infrastructure automation software for multi-cloud environments, enabling enterprises to unlock a common cloud operating model to provision, secure, connect, and run any application on any infrastructure. HashiCorp tools allow organizations to deliver applications faster by helping enterprises transition from manual processes and ITIL practices to self-service automation and DevOps practices. 

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IBM is a leading global hybrid cloud and AI, and business services provider. We help clients in more than 175 countries capitalize on insights from their data, streamline business processes, reduce costs and gain the competitive edge in their industries. Nearly 3,000 government and corporate entities in critical infrastructure areas such as financial services, telecommunications and healthcare rely on IBM’s hybrid cloud platform and Red Hat OpenShift to affect their digital transformations quickly, efficiently and securely. IBM’s breakthrough innovations in AI, quantum computing, industry-specific cloud solutions and business services deliver open and flexible options to our clients. All of this is backed by IBM’s legendary commitment to trust, transparency, responsibility, inclusivity and service.