In collaboration with
Despite being a small European nation with 1.3 million citizens, Estonia punches above its weight when it comes to digital adoption, and is often lauded as one of the most digitally advanced countries in the world.
The country made the news in 2020 when it launched its Digital Nomad visa in August — the first of its kind — allowing foreigners to live within its borders for up to a year, all while working for an employer in another country. Just one example of Estonia’s avid and early adoption of tech-related initiatives.
Because Estonia has so warmly embraced technology, it naturally has fascinating smart city initiatives and projects that are worth a closer look.
eID and Digital Services
When Estonia gained independence in 1991 from the Soviet Union, the government had to build up its public services from scratch, and from the start, it decided to go digital.
“Estonia was a relatively poor country,” Estonia’s President Kersti Kaljulaid said during a CNBC interview. “Our public sector, our government and our civil servants wanted to offer our people good quality services. We did it straight away digitally because it was simply cheaper, easy.”
Today, over 99% of Estonia’s government services can be done online, from paying taxes to checking health records and prescriptions, to even e-voting!
But the backbone of the system is Estonia’s digital ID service — aptly named eID — which allows citizens to identify themselves when making online transactions. In fact, enabling digital signatures has allowed the country to save up to 2% of its GDP annually.
Estonia’s eID system is similar to Singapore’s very own SingPass, which also allows Singapore residents to digitally verify their identities. This grants users access to over 2,000 online services from government and private organisations. With SingPass, one can instantly check their CPF account balances or even apply for a home online.
But there are some key differences between the two systems. For example, usage of the mobile version of eID requires an individual to own a specially-registered SIM card that is secured with a passcode. While in Singapore, we use the SingPass Mobile app, that’s secured with either a fingerprint, face recognition or a 6-digit pin.
Either way, Estonians and Singaporeans can both agree that digital identification that facilitates e-transactions goes a long way to making our lives much, much easier.
Mobile Parking Payments
Mobile Parking PaymentsEstonians have been paying for parking via mobiles for 20 years!
Parking.SG, launched in 2017, allows Singaporean motorists to pay and manage their parking sessions via a mobile app. Gone are the days of hunting down a 7-11 to buy paper parking coupons, or the fear of finding a fine plastered on the windscreen after returning from a longer-than-expected makan session.
But did you know that Estonia was the first country in the world to implement a mobile parking payment system? Estonians have been enjoying mobile parking payment since 2000.
The aptly-named Mobile Parking system can be used in public parking facilities and even private ones. It’s all done conveniently through a mobile app. Around 90% of all parking charges are paid via the system.
Recent improvements to the Mobile Parking app include a fully automated solution; a parking session automatically begins when the vehicle is turned off, and ends once its started up again. This is achieved when the app is paired via bluetooth to a vehicle’s in-car entertainment system.
Even payment is simple, as the cost of the parking will be simply added to the driver’s mobile phone bill at the end of the month.
Smart Zebra Crossing
When we talk about smart cities, vehicle-related solutions dominate the headlines, from electric self-driving cars to the above mentioned smart parking system. But what about smart city solutions for the most basic commuter — the walking pedestrian?
Well, how about a smart zebra crossing sign? Developed by the Estonian company Bercman, this smart sign has been installed in four locations. Three are operating in Estonia and one in Helsinki, Finland.
But what is it? Well, named the Smart Pedestrian Crosswalk (of course) is a street-sign on steroids. While traditional signages passively provide information to road users and pedestrians to keep them safe, this smart sign is able to take active steps to prevent accidents from occurring.
Smart Pedestrian Crosswalk, an IoT cloud-based platform, monitors sensors to report traffic flow and parking availability across Amsterdam. When Smart Flow was first launched, the average time required to find a parking space was significantly reduced by 43 percent. On top of that, it helps drivers to make more fiscally responsible choices by listing the cheapest options within the area.
How is this done? According to Bercman, “…narrow artificial intelligence algorithms are used, which are capable of predicting the moving trajectories when a pedestrian might be run over by a vehicle”. The sign would then emit audio warnings, and flash red LEDs to grab the attention of both pedestrian and driver to prevent an accident.
Now that’s really smart.
A Smart Commitment
In 2019, the Estonian government co-funded €17 million into a fund that focuses on developing solutions for cross-border integration of smart cities. The project, dubbed the “Finest Twins”, aims to make the neighbouring capital cities of Finland and Estonia — Helsinki and Tallinn — more digitally integrated.
Additionally, the initiative will fund a challenge that seeks to award 10 proposals that solves urban challenges identified by the local governments of Estonia. Each successful proposal would receive up to €1.5 million each to fund a large-scale pilot test.
The fund is the most valuable research and development fund in Estonia, and signifies the commitment Estonians have made towards the smart city dream. As such, we can be sure to expect further exciting smart city developments from Estonia.
PHOTO CREDIT: www.tech.gov.sg
Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute (ASTRI) is leading the city’s efforts to implement a global solution known as cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) technology which is a communication system that enables a vehicle’s smart sensors to interact and exchange data with other smart vehicles, infrastructure, mobile networks and devices – could help tackle road safety problems, such as accidents and congestion.
Since 2017, ASTRI and its partner (Hong Kong’s flagship mobile network provider) have been working together to fine-tune the technology. Their latest endeavour is called the 5G V2X project, the first trial run of C-V2X on public roads in Hong Kong.
The journey will involve a 14km-stretch between the Science Park and Sha Tin town centre. The 30-minute drive will see connected vehicles collect road intelligence data as they pass 14 sets of Road Side Units (RSUs) on lamp posts and traffic lights. The RSUs will provide real-time warnings and data for 10 different driving conditions on the road.
Any vehicle equipped with an on-board unit can communicate with different elements along the road, forming an ecosystem powered by 5G technology.
Various devices can collect real-time traffic data and use it to provide warnings to drivers of hazardous driving situations, traffic light changes, pedestrians on a road crossing, and alternative travel routes in the event of a nearby accident or traffic congestion ahead.
In the future, the ecosystem could accommodate autonomous vehicles, allowing actions – like closely grouping cars together in busy areas – to alleviate traffic jams.
The Road Side Unit is a small radio unit installed on top of the traffic light post, about 12 metres in height. It a coverage radius of 100-200 metres; every vehicle coming into this area will communicate to the radio of this Road Side Unit.
Every second, the unit communicates 10 times about its location, direction and its speed. With this exchange of information, the computer onboard the vehicle will calculate what will happen after four seconds. It will alert the driver through this analysis.
C-V2X involves the “Internet of Vehicles”, which has been made more efficient and reliable through the development of 5G which is 20 times faster than 4G, and five times shorter in latency. It can connect one million vehicles or sensors within one square km.
The layered design of the C-V2X system means it can be used in different parts of Hong Kong and also across Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.
ASTRI and HKT’s work on C-V2X has consisted of several demonstrations and trials, including the first C-V2X live trial at Hong Kong Science Park, in Sha Tin, in 2017, a field trial in Wuxi, mainland China, in 2018, and a 2019 demonstration of autonomous driving at Hong Kong International Airport.
This site was chosen for the variety of traffic scenarios it provides: regular public roads, roundabouts, hotspot cross junctions, and even intersections without traffic lights. The aim was to prove that C-V2X can be used to improve traffic safety and efficiency in real-life conditions.
This trial will see ASTRI and HKT working with a vehicle partner – a Swedish manufacturer of commercial vehicles, which has considerable expertise in driver behaviour testing as well as a global database of best practices.
The business development director in Hong Kong and China for the vehicle manufacturer stated that its existing Advanced Driver Assistance System already includes blind-spot detection, lane-departure warnings and an automated electric brake system.
This has drastically improved vehicle safety, but communication remains one-way within the vehicle, she said. The company’s collaboration with ASTRI on C-V2X will increase the range of detection of outside elements and subsequently improve safety further.
The road trial would help test the interaction between ASTRI’s on-board unit, the manufacturer’s vehicles and the infrastructure set up along the road to see whether they can correctly access the data while the vehicle is moving.
As the digital economy grows and matures with the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, the “smart cities” movement is gaining momentum. For most, it represents the promise of high-tech cities, cars equipped with advanced tech rolling the streets, AI-powered drones delivering food, and connected devices everywhere helping citizens experience digital haven.
With this end-goal in mind, Indonesia and Singapore team up to build Southeast Asia’s digital hub of the future. The two countries called this project, “Nongsa D-Town”. This will serve as a digital bridge between Indonesia and Singapore connecting Batam’s high-tech future with its industrial past.
Located just 40 minutes by ferry from Singapore’s Harbourfront, the digital hub provides an opportunity for rising start-ups from both countries to collaborate within close physical proximity. The settlement is built upon the three philosophical pillars of ecological, digital, and physical sustainability. Rather than the hyper-urban culture typical of many downtown tech hubs, life at D-town is designed to accommodate sustainable mobile work.
Designed by a Singaporean firm and developed by two of Indonesia’s largest conglomerates, the interconnected layout of D-Town includes a residential village, tech campuses, a town plaza, and a commercial centre and is set to house 8000 tech talents when completed. There are currently about 1000 tech talents at the existing NDP working for tech companies and start-ups from the two countries.
Singapore and Indonesia are home to Southeast Asia’s most vibrant tech ecosystems. Eleven out of the thirteen tech unicorns operating in ASEAN are headquartered in either country, seven out of those eleven are homegrown start-ups.
The two countries have produced companies that dominate the regional market by first-mover advantages over their neighbours through superior technology, as is the case with Singapore, and massive population size, as is the case with Indonesia, their respective start-up scenes share and compete for talent, resources, and market share.
Overlapping time zones between Indonesia and Singapore facilitate ease of work across borders. Due to the accelerated transition to digital within the last year, cross-border collaboration between remote teams has become a common occurrence. Despite Singapore’s technological advancement compared to its neighbours, it faces a shortage of tech talent. Nongsa D-Town will allow talent from Indonesia and Singapore to collaborate directly within the same area, providing a solution to the shortage while further tightening economic ties between the two nations.
At 270 million people, Indonesia is the largest market in ASEAN. Indonesians are notoriously early adopters of new technologies when given the chance, with 32% of the population keen to use new tech products as soon as they enter the market, according to a survey. The sheer volume of Indonesian consumers eager to try new technologies makes the country an ideal steppingstone for Singaporean start-ups that intend to scale regionally, often through Batam as a port of call.
At the same time, within the perimeter of the D-Town Masterplan that will be launched, there is Nongsa Digital Park (NDP), an initiative supported by both Indonesian and Singapore Governments which is frequently mentioned in high-level bilateral meetings between President Jokowi and Prime Minister Lee. D-Town leverages on the initial success of NDP that saw several international companies have already taken advantage of the access to talent and the economic incentives currently offered to set up in the digital downtown.
Indonesia’s National Special Economic Zone Council, chaired by Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs Airlangga Hartarto, announced that NDP has the potential to create employment and boost economic growth, hence it was recommended to President Jokowi to be confirmed as a new Special Economic Zone (SEZ).
As reported by OpenGov Asia, these digital ventures were recently mentioned as part of Singapore’s investment budget over the next three years. Deputy PM Heng Swee Keat announced that Singapore will be allocating around $24 billion over the next three years to enhance its digital connectivity and global presence, a plan which includes cross-country investments like NDP and its next phase of development, Nongsa D-Town.
Researchers from NUS Design and Environment and Yale-NUS College have collaborated with ETH Zurich and other Singapore universities to start a Future Cities Lab Global (FCL Global) – an international, interdisciplinary research collaboration that aims to develop solutions to help cities and their surrounding regions achieve sustainable growth.
NUS Deputy President -Research and Technolog, Professor Chen Tsuhan said that NUS adopts a systems approach to solving real-world problems concerning climate change and sustainability.
He said, “Harnessing our deep and broad expertise in areas such as green technologies, design, engineering, sciences, social sciences and public policy, we aim to advance integrated sustainability solutions that are optimised and resilient for tropical, urban and Asian settings.”
Launched in December last year, the five-year collaborative venture seeks to address the globally significant challenges of expanding urbanisation, where existing cities are fast growing and new cities are emerging in the face of rapid population growth.
Tapping on the deep expertise of 120 engineers, architects, environmental scientists, economists and social scientists from Singapore and Switzerland, the collaboration builds on the work of the now-completed Future Cities Laboratory Programme which focused on cities and their development.
Supported by Singapore’s National Research Foundation (NRF), FCL Global expands the focus to address corridors and networks between cities and the surrounding regions – such as roads, ports, rivers, and airports, as well as their impact on land use and ecology.
The collaboration will be co-hosted in two research laboratories: ETH Zurich, and Singapore-ETH Centre (SEC) – a partnership established between ETH and NRF at the Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE).
NUS researchers are involved in six of the eight projects that are currently being carried out. These will focus on topics such as green buildings and neighbourhoods in dense urban areas, new technologies for recycling building materials, and solutions to aid tropical coastal cities in Asia that are distressed or at risk of flooding.
Prof Lam Khee Poh, Dean of NUS Design and Environment and a member of the FCL Global Steering Committee, observed that Singapore is one of the most liveable cities in Asia and the world. Stressing on the need to focus on a holistic people-centric design to build a resilient city of tomorrow, he added, “NUS’ multi-disciplinary research in collaboration with FCL Global will develop future-ready solutions for sustainable and healthy cities. This will also help advance Singapore’s multi-ministry effort to achieve the Singapore Green Plan 2030.”
Researchers from the University of Wollongong have successfully demonstrated an algorithm that detects fights through CCTV cameras on public transport. The team, based at the SMART Infrastructure Facility, has successfully demonstrated the ability of their software to detect a fight using actual footage. Next, they will stage a “fight” at Wollongong station and test the ability of the CCTV network and operators to act on a violent incident.
Lead researcher Dr John Barthelemy said this was the first time that this type of artificial intelligence would be used by a public transport operator. The project, which started in September 2020, was one of four winners of a Safety After Dark challenge created by Transport for NSW.
The challenge focuses on making women feel, and be safer when travelling on public transport. Research into women’s safety revealed that girls and women do not always feel safe travelling in the city at night.
“The next stage will be like moving from the lab to the real world,” Dr Barthelemy said. “We want to test how easy it is to deploy it in a station – we know that the core of it works but we want to test all the things around it.”
The software is designed to automatically analyse real-time camera feeds and alert an operator when it detects a suspicious incident or an unsafe environment. The data and reports automatically generated by the software can then be used to help prevent the abuse and violence committed towards women after dark in public transportation.
The software uses open-source code to predict a fight by looking at typical human poses. A human controller who accepts or rejects the suggestion then reviews footage. The result is then used by the software to analyse images with greater accuracy.
One of the largest research institutions in the world dedicated to helping governments and businesses better plan for the future, SMART brings together experts from fields such as rail, infrastructure systems, transport, water, energy, economics and modelling and simulation, providing 30 state-of-the-art laboratories to facilitate this important research.
More projects from SMART’s research facility
SMART Cities and Transport uses a wide range of tools, like modelling, optimisation, simulation and data analytics to create the cities of tomorrow by addressing the challenges of today. The SMART Cities and Transport research theme comprise of two research groups:
- Smart Cities & Communities
The Smart Cities & Communities research group uses data-driven models and multi-disciplinary approaches to explore how cities can create more liveable neighbourhoods, open spaces and workplaces.
The Smart Cities & Communities group aims to provide data-driven analysis and modelling on the liveability metrics of the region’s cities. Areas covered include parks and green space, tree coverage, sanitation and recycling, health and well-being, walking and cycling promotion, transit opportunities, safety and accident prevention, housing and workplace balance, or other metrics as chosen by collaborators.
The creation of Smart Cities is a dynamic area of study, and one that will change as technology improves and citizens see the benefit of data gathering. Over time, the technology to measure will improve, citizens may wish for other options, and the entire work package will be reinvestigated. The Group aims to be both responding to, and these changes in the cities of tomorrow.
- Future Transport & Mobility
The Future Transport & Mobility research group focuses on the rapidly growing area of next-generation transport system and urban mobility.
The Group aims to reshape people’s travel behaviour and practically improve transport systems in the era of connectivity, sharing, big data and smart cities by using a wide range of advanced tools, like modelling, optimisation, simulation and data analytics.
One particular focus of the research group is to facilitate electric vehicle (EV) uptake in Australia (much lower than other developed countries) by providing optimal vehicle operation strategies and corresponding infrastructure planning. Other areas of research include Traveller Choice Behaviour Modelling, Transport Network Modelling and Optimisation, Optimisation of Transport Systems using Data-driven Approach, and Smart Cities with Smart and Sustainable Transport.
There is an increasing demand for places to live that have infrastructure suited for the 21st century. Cities are emerging as hubs and the heart of technological innovation; characterised by an ongoing shift from technology parks in suburban areas, to entrepreneurial activity within cities, especially during the age of COVID-19. The continuous rise of tech cities provides opportunities for businesses and employment. Traditional manufacturing and routine cognitive skills jobs are diminishing and the creation of new sources of employment and growth is vital to maintain competitiveness, reduce poverty, and increase shared prosperity to help lessen the impacts of the pandemic. “Urban tech” and “smart cities” technologies are changing how residents engage city services and move through public space.
A global tech market advisory firm has found that there are currently over 13,000 microcities globally, their research states. Microcities or “cities within cities” are amenity-packed and designed to meet the needs of technology-driven residents. Microcity clusters are generally located in and around airports, ports, international rail stations, venues, malls, corporate and university campuses, office parks, and other highly concentrated urban zones. This way, developers can make not only a community for citizens but places that cater to the needs of the public especially during this new normal brought upon by the pandemic.
Tech firms predict microcities will remain key for urban technology innovation. A wide range of technology vendors provides a robust range of options such as private 5G networks, data analytics and AI, IoT platforms and industrial systems for airports, campuses and railway stations for these microcities or urban tech cities. Common technologies deployed across all microcity types include smart cameras and biometrics, robotics and automation, digital signage, private Wi-Fi and 5G networks and other advanced technologies. These innovations and solutions allow developers to address specific challenges related to people flow management, access and security, overall customer experience and environmental impact while generating cost savings through maximising operational efficiencies.
The Philippines is a perfect prospect for urban tech. And within the nation, the city that best reflects what a true tech hub might stem from is Cebu City, the second-largest metropolitan. The Philippines is the fastest growing economy in Asia and Cebu is the fastest growing city in the Philippines. An article list several reasons why Cebu is the perfect candidate for an urban tech hub including rapid growth, rapid growth, better traffic, lower cost of living and readily available commercial and residential options
Cebu’s IT Park and Business Parks may be nearly at leasing capacity, but many more commercial and residential projects are being built. Anyone who has spent time in Cebu recently will be surprised at the sheer volume of construction either under way or earmarked to start shortly. Alongside the continuing expansion of IT Park and Business Park, a plethora of exciting new developments are due to be completed over the next 4–5 years providing an ever-expanding range of living and working environments for entrepreneurs.
The recently concluded the Roadmap Study for Sustainable Urban Development in Metro Cebu (Metro Cebu Roadmap) citing solid growth of 5.8% GDP and 1 million new jobs to be created by 2050 once the roadmap is fully implemented. The roadmap can be the city’s blueprint for sustainable economic development and provides all local stakeholders with a clear vision for the future. Also, there is the exciting prospective addition of the Cebu Bus Rapid Transit System which is a mass transit system for Cebu City.
Nations are also looking for ways to keep up with the ever-changing framework of technology and the pandemic only hastened the inevitable process. The unending marathon of making a sustainable future for every country drives the inspiration behind the development of urban tech cities. Microcities built on the ideas mentioned in the research aim to create a more effective, data-driven, safer and improved technological experience for citizens and their government.
According to an National University Singapore (NUS) report, Singapore has warmed notably since the mid-1970s when rapid urbanisation took place, at a rate of 0.25 degrees Celsius per decade according to the Meteorological Service Singapore.
“The rate is higher than the global average rate of 0.17 degree Celsius per decade since 1970, based on data from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. If the current urban development approach remains unchanged, local warming will lead to a rise in electricity demand for cooling and the risk of residents suffering from heat stress.”
Study to help find out how to keep Singapore cool and improve urban climate resilience
Presidential Young Professor Dr Yuan Chao from the Department of Architecture at the NUS School of Design and Environment led a team to examine the heat balance in the street canyon – where the street is flanked by buildings on both sides – and developed a user-friendly Geographic Information System (GIS) tool to estimate the impact of urban planning on anthropogenic heat dispersion.
Dr Yuan Chao, Dr Mei Shuojun, Dr He Wenhui and Ms Zhang Liqing investigated the transient street air warming procedure and developed a practical GIS-based model to estimate how much and how fast the air temperature will be increased by anthropogenic heat.
Dr Yuan observed, “The air temperature increment in residential areas could be even higher in the future due to rapid global warming and urban development. It could increase the risk of residents in tropical cities suffering from more frequent and intensive long-term heat stress and short-term heatwaves.”
Dr Yuan said that “Due to the huge uncertainty caused by urbanisation and global warming, the new GIS-based analytical model is a feasible tool to deal with numerous microclimate scenarios to help Singapore stay cool.”
Next steps – tackling heat problems globally
The model can be easily adopted in cities overseas. By connecting this model with global and regional scale models, city-level findings can also be used to tackle heat problems globally.
The team will explore working with other research teams working on global and regional scale models in the near future. They have also identified air pollution as another important urban climate issue that will also be integrated into this GIS tool.
PHOTO CREDIT: https://news.nus.edu.sg/
Photo: Dr Yuan Chao showing the results of air temperature increase by anthropogenic heat in various regions using the GIS tool developed by his team.
As part of its comprehensive digital transformation strategy and its ambitions to be a regional digital powerhouse, the Ministry of Information and Communications (MIC) has placed smart cities and commercialisation of 5G at the top of their priority list.
Vietnam has seen a rapid blossoming of its city areas with the urbanisation rate shooting up from 19.6% in 2009 (629 urban areas) to about 39.25 by the beginning of 2020 (835 urban areas in December 2019). After Vietnam joined the ASEAN Smart Cities Network 2 years ago, the Vietnam Smart City Development Project (2018-2025) was released with a vision until 2030. The project has three priority areas – programming smart cities, managing smart cities and smart urban utilities.
Minister of Construction, Pham Hong Ha, said Vietnam will implement the tasks and solutions set in the Vietnam Smart City Development project. These include a legal framework for the development of smart cities as well as management of tools, institutions and mechanisms for cooperation between ministries and branches, between the central and local government, to ensure smart cities throughout the country and avoid waste in using resources.
Concerning connectivity, within the final months of 2020, all three major mobile carriers in Vietnam announced trials of commercial 5G services, making Vietnam one of the first countries in the world to roll out the latest generation of wireless technology. This is expected to boost the digital economy.
According to a news report, unlike previous technologies most of which had to be imported, Vietnam has gradually mastered and is now capable of producing 5G equipment, a strategically important step in Vietnam’s development of information and communications technology. State-run enterprise Viettel was the pioneer in announcing commercial 5G trials in late November with coverage in the Hoan Kiem, Ba Dinh, and Hai Ba Trung Districts of Hanoi. Owners of 5G-enabled devices can now use the service for free at a speed of up to 1.5 gigabits per second, far higher than 4G.
Both these priorities – smart cities and 5G – are in line with the MIC as well as the Hanoi People’s Committee, and the implementation of these priorities rests with the Hanoi Department of Information and Communication. In a report presented at a conference on reviewing tasks in 2020, the department said it had helped the Hanoi People’s Committee set up a plan on IT use in Hanoi in 2020 as well as IT use in state agencies, further developing digital government and ensuring cybersecurity in 2021.
The municipal authorities were handed over a plan to implement Decree 45 on administrative procedures for the electronic environment and to set up a program on digital transformation in Hanoi by 2025 with the vision until 2030. The agency also played an important role in the construction of infrastructure items at the software park in Dong Anh district.
In terms of post and telecommunications, the agency advised municipal authorities on the regulation on managing, building and using technical infrastructure works for common use, and upgrading and rearranging telecom cables on poles.
The department coordinated with specialised agencies to implement Decree 92 on fighting against spam messages, e-mails and calls. Nguyen Thanh Liem, director of the Hanoi Department of Information and Communications, affirmed that Hanoi has pioneered eliminating spam calls and messages. One of the outstanding telecom achievements of Hanoi in 2020 was the trial of 5G services and the installation of public wifi at tourist sites and historical relics in the city.
Hanoi aims to improve its image in information technology applications in 2021. With new infrastructure items such as the smart operation centre, the cybersecurity monitoring centre and shared software systems, information technology applications in the city will be better in the near future.
Deputy Minister Pham Anh Tuan directed the department to build an action plan based on the key orientations shown in Instruction 01 from MIC. He also urged then to complete the Vpostcode map with the addresses of every household. This is considered the foundation for e-commerce development and management.